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Title: The Spanish Armada, 1588
       The Tapestry Hangings of the House of Lords representing
              the several engagements between the English and Spanish

Author: John Pine

Illustrator: John Pine

Release Date: April 6, 2018 [EBook #56927]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8


Produced by deaurider, Barry Abrahamsen, and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at (This
file was produced from images generously made available
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The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain.


JOHN PINE, Engraver.
An Appendix containing Biographical Sketches of the Principal English Commanders
Knighted by the Admiral at Sea, July 26, 1588.
The Riverside Press, Cambridge.

Copyright, 1878,

Representing the several
In the ever memorable Year MDLXXXVIII,
With the
Portraits of the Lord High-Admiral, and the other
Noble Commanders, taken from the Life.
To which are added,
From a Book entitled, Expeditionis Hispanorum in Angliam vera Descriptio, A.D. 1588, done, as is supposed, for the said Tapestry to be work’d after,
Ten CHARTS of the Sea-Coasts of England,
And a General One of
England, Scotland, Ireland, France, Holland, &c.
Shewing the Places of Action between the two Fleets;
Ornamented with
MEDALS struck upon that Occasion,
And other suitable Devices.
An Historical Account of each Day’s Action, Collected from the most Authentic Manuscripts and Writers.
By JOHN PINE, Engraver.
Sold by J. Pine in Old Bond Street near Picadilly.

K I N G.


I Humbly beg Leave to present to Your Majesty, these Representations of the Hangings in the House of Lords, which contain the several Victories obtained against the King of Spain in 1588.

That the same glorious Success may attend your Majesty, whenever your Fleets shall be engaged with any of your Majesty’s Enemies, is the hearty Prayer of


Most dutiful and most obedient

Subject and Servant,


S U B S C R I B E R S.
His Royal Highness the PRINCE of WALES.
His Royal Highness the DUKE.
His most Serene Highness the PRINCE of ORANGE.
HIS Grace the Duke of St. Alban’s.
            His Grace the Duke of Ancaster.
            His Grace the Duke of Argyll and Greenwich.
His Grace the Duke of Athol.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Albemarle.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Aylesford.
The Right Honourable the Lord Abergavenny.
The Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of St. Asaph.
Sir Joseph Ayliffe, Bart. 2 Setts.
The Honourable Richard Arundell, Esq;
Richard Arnold, Esq;
Jacob Astley, Esq;
Mr. Christopher Anderson.
His Grace the Duke of Beaufort.
His Grace the Duke of Bedford.
His Grace the Duke of Bolton.
His Grace the Duke of Buccleugh.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Burlington, 2 Setts.
The Right Honourable the Lord Bruce.
The Right Honourable the Lord Bathurst.
The Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Bangor, 2 Setts.
The Right Honourable the Lord Vere Beauclerk.
The Right Honourable the Lord Baltimore.
Sir George Beaumont, Bart.
Sir John Bland, Bart.
Sir Roger Burgogne, Bart.
Sir Thomas Brand, Knt.
Thomas Bacon, Esq;
Henry Barham, Esq;
William Barners, Esq;
Nicholas Bayley, Esq;
Nathanael Blackerby, Esq;
The Honourable Martin Bladen, Esq;
Thomas Bladen, Esq;
Walter Blackett, Esq;
Robert Bristow, Esq;
Thomas Brian, Esq;
Alexander Brodie, Esq;
Josiah Burchett, Esq;
The Rev. Dr. John Burton, Master of Winchester School.
Robert Burd, Esq;
Samuel Burroughs, Esq;
Robert Byng, Esq;
His Grace the Duke of Chandos.
The Right Honourable the Marquis of Caernarvon.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Cardigan.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Coventry.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Chesterfield.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Cholmondeley.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Clarendon and Rochester.
The Right Honourable the Earl Cowper.
The Right Honourable the Lord Craven.
The Right Honourable the Lord Carteret.
Sir James Campbell, Bart.
Sir William Carew, Bart.
Sir John Hinde Cotton, Bart.
Sir William Courtenay, Bart.
Sir Francis Child, Knt. Alderman of London.
Sir Clement Cottrell, Knt.
Trinity College Library in the University of Cambridge.
Richard Chandler, Esq;
James Chetham, Esq;
The Rev. Dr. Alured Clarke.
Matthew Clarke, M. D.
John Codrington, Esq;
John Conduit, Esq;
Thomas Copleston, Esq;
Thomas Corbett, Esq;
The Honourable Spencer Cowper, Esq;
William Cowper, Esq;
James Cockburn, Esq;
John Crawley, Esq;
Mrs. Crewe.
John Crewe, Jun. Esq;
Joseph Crewe, Esq;
Thomas Crosse, Esq;
Andrew Crosse, Esq;
John Crosse, Esq;
Philip Carter, A. M.
Mr. Charles Cary.
His Grace the Duke of Devonshire.
His Grace the Duke of Dorset.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Darnley.
The Right Honourable the Lord De La Warr.
Sir James Dashwood, Bart. 2 Setts.
Sir Francis Henry Drake, Bart.
Sir Charles Dalton, Knt.
The Honourable General James Dormer.
Robert Douglas, Esq;
Mr. James Deacon, Jun.
Andrew Ducarel, Esq;
James Douglas, Esq;
Thomas Duncombe, Esq;
The Right Honourable the Earl of Exeter.
The Right Honourable the Countess of Exeter.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Effingham.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Egmont.
Sir Richard Ellys, Bart.
The Honourable Richard Edgcumbe, Esq;
The Honourable George Evens, Esq;
Mr. Charles Egleton.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Fitz-Walter.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Findlater.
The Right Honourable the Lord Viscount Falconbergh.
The Right Honourable the Lord Foley.
The Honourable Mr. Justice Fortescue.
Sir Robert Fagg, Bart.
Sir John Frederick, Bart.
Sir Andrew Fountaine, Knt.
The Honourable John Finch, Esq; of Cavendish Square.
The Honourable Duncan Forbes, Esq;
Nicholas Fenwick, Esq;
Thomas Foley, Jun. Esq;
Matthew Frampton, M. D. of Oxford.
Thomas Frederick, Esq;
Richard Frewin, M. D. of Oxford.
His Grace the Duke of Grafton.
The Right Honourable the Lord North and Guilford.
The Right Honourable the Lord Gower.
The Right Honourable the Lord Gallway.
The Right Honourable the Lord Grey.
The Right Honourable the Lady Eliz. Germain. 2 Setts.
Sir Robert Grosvenor, Bart.
The Honourable William Leveson Gower, Esq;
Henry Gardie, Esq;
Francis Gaussend, Esq;
Edward Gibbon, Esq;
Westby Gill, Esq;
William Gore, Esq;
Edward Le Grande, Esq;
Charles Gray, Esq; of Colchester.
Mr. John Godfrey.
His Grace the Duke of Hamilton and Brandon.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Hallifax.
The Right Honourable the Lord Hardwick.
Nicholas Hardinge, Esq;
Edward Harley, Esq;
Michael Harvey, Esq;
Carleton Hayward, Esq;
Col. Thomas Herbert.
Francis Haywood, Esq;
Thomas Hill, Esq;
The Reverend Dr. Hodges, Provost of Oriel College Oxford.
Henry Hoare, Esq;
Richard Hoare, Esq;
Thomas Strangways Horner, Esq;
John Hylton, Esq;
William Handley, Esq;
Mr. Samuel Haynes.
Mr. Gerrard Howard.
The Right Honourable the Lord Viscount Irwin.
Sir William Irby, Bart.
Sir Justinian Isham, Bart.
The Honourable and Reverend Mr. Ingram.
Captain Thomas James.
Colonel Charles Ingram.
His Grace the Duke of Kent.
Sir John Lister Kaye, Bart.
Edward Kinaston, Esq;
Thomas King, Esq;
His Grace the Duke of Leeds.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Litchfield.
The Right Honourable the Lord Lovell.
The Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Landaff.
The Right Honourable the Lord Chief Justice Lee.
Sir Darcy Lever, Knt. LL. D.
Lancelot Charles Lake, Esq;
John Lethieullier, Esq;
George Liddell, Esq;
Thomas Lister, Esq;
Mr. Charles Lowth.
His Grace the Duke of Marlborough.
His Grace the Duke of Montague.
His Grace the Duke of Manchester.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Macclesfield.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Malton.
The Right Honourable the Lord Monson.
Sir John Morgan, Bart.
Sir William Morris, Bart. 2 Setts.
J. R. Madan, Esq;
Pierce Manaton, M. D. of Oxford.
Benjamin Martyn, Esq;
Thomas Master, Esq;
Thomas May, Esq;
Richard Mead, M. D.
Philip Mercier, Esq; 2 Setts.
Richard Mitchell, Esq;
John Michell, Esq;
—— Maule, Esq;
Thomas Morgan, Esq;
Thomas Mostyn, Esq;
Mr. Solomon Merrett.
His Grace the Duke of Norfolk, 2 Setts.
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Northampton.
Sir Michael Newton, Bart.
The Honourable James Noel, Esq;
George Noyes, Esq;
The Right Honourable the Earl of Orrery.
The Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Ossory.
The Right Honourable Arthur Onslow, Esq; Speaker of the H. of Commons.
General James Oglethorpe.
Nathanael Oldham, Esq;
Leak Okeover, Esq;
Samuel Ongley, Esq;
William Osbaldeston, Esq;
Jonathan Oldham, Painter.
Mr. Edward Oakley.
In the University of Oxford the following Libraries,
Christ-Church College.
Trinity College.
All-Souls College.
Jesus College.
Wadham College.
His Grace the Duke of Portland.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Pembroke.
The Right Honourable Micajah Perry, Esq; Lord Mayor of London.
The Honourable Mr. Justice Probyn.
Sir Erasmus Philipps, Bart.
The Honourable Henry Pelham, Esq;
The Honourable Stephen Poyntz, Esq;
Charles Palmer, Esq;
Humphry Parsons, Esq; Alderman of London.
Thomas Pitt, Esq;
John Plumptree, Esq;
David Polhill, Esq;
Arthur Pollard, Esq;
Thomas Potter, Esq;
Richard Powys, Esq;
Newdigate Poyntz, Esq;
Thomas Prowse, Esq;
Mr. John Perkins.
Mr. William Pate, Woollen-Draper.
His Grace the Duke of Queensberry.
His Grace the Duke of Richmond, Lenox, and Aubigny, 2 Setts.
His Grace the Duke of Rutland.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Rockingham.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Rochford.
The Right Honourable the Lord Romney.
The Right Honourable the Lord Raymond.
The Right Honourable the Lord Chief Baron Reynolds.
Geard. Andrew Reiche, Esq; 2 Setts.
Richard Rawlinson, LL. D. R. S. S.
Francis Reynolds, Esq;
William Robinson, Esq;
Mr. John Rocque.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Suffolk.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Shaftsbury.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Scarborough.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Strafford.
The Right Honourable the Earl Stanhope.
The Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Sarum.
The Right Honourable the Lord Charles Noel Somerset.
Sir Jer. Vanacker Sambrooke, Bart.
Sir William Sanderson, Bart.
Sir Brownlow Sherard, Bart.
Sir Hans Sloane, Bart.
Sir William Stapleton, Bart.
The Honourable Edward Southwell, Esq;
The Honourable John Spencer, Esq;
Samuel Sandys, Esq;
The Reverend Mr. Archdeacon Sayer.
Charles Savage, Esq;
John Sawbridge, Esq;
Thomas Scawen, Esq;
Gervaise Scroope, Esq;
John Selwyn, Esq;
Thomas Sergison, Esq;
Edward Seymour, Esq;
Peter Shakerley, Esq;
The Honourable John Sherard, Esq;
Powell Snell, Esq;
The Reverend Dr. Shippen, Principal of Brasen-Nose College, Oxford.
Uriah Shudal, Esq;
Richard Shuttleworth, Esq;
Theodore Smith, Esq;
Robert Smith, Esq;
James Sotheby, Esq;
Paulet St. John, Esq;
Mr. Charles Scriven.
Mr. Symonds, Bookseller.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Tankerville.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Thomond.
The Right Honourable the Lord Viscount Torrington.
The Right Honourable the Lord Viscount Tyrconnel.
The Right Honourable the Lord Talbot.
The Right Honourable and Reverend Richard Trevor, D.D.
John Talbot, Esq;
John Tempest, Esq;
The Honourable John Temple, Esq;
The Reverend Dr. Thistlethwayte, Warden of Wadham College, Oxon.
Edward Thompson, Esq;
Robert Trefusis, Esq;
Cholmly Turner, Esq;
William Vaughan, Esq;
The Right Honourable the Earl of Warwick and Holland.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Warrington, 4 Setts.
The Right Honourable the Earl Waldegrave.
The Right Honourable the Earl of Wilmington.
The Right Honourable Sir Robert Walpole.
The Right Honourable the Lord Chief Justice Willes.
Sir Thomas Webster, Bart.
Sir Thomas Wheate, Bart.
Sir William Wyndham, Bart.
Sir George Wynne, Bart.
Sir Charles Wager, Knt.
Sir George Walter, Knt.
Edward Walpole, Esq;
James West, Esq;
Francis Whitworth, Esq;
Lawrence Williams, Esq;
Charles Hanbury Williams, Esq;
Watkins Williams Wynn, Esq;
William Wilmer, Esq;
Mr. John Williams.
Mr. Timothy Wyld.
The Rev. Mr. John Wyatt, Master of Felsted School, in Essex.
The Right-Honourable Sir William Yonge, Bart.
N A M E S   O M I T T E D.
The Right Honourable the Lord Petre.
The Right Honourable the Lord Sherard Manners.
The Honourable Sir John Eyles, Bart. Postmaster General.
Papillion Ball, Esq;
John Carew, Esq;
Mr. Thomas Hyam, Merchant.
Mr. Andrews Jelfe.
Charles Peers, Esq;
William Roope, Esq;


In the Year mdlxxxviii.

THE Defeat of the Spanish Armada being the most glorious Victory that was ever obtained at Sea, and the most important to the British Nation, every Method deserves some Praise, that may in a suitable Manner propagate the Memory of it. Our Ancestors, that were personally interested in it, were so careful it should not pass into Oblivion, that they procured the Engagements between the two Fleets to be represented in ten curious Pieces of Tapestry, with the Portraits of the several English Captains, taken from the Life, worked in the Borders, which are now placed, some in the Royal Wardrobe, some in the House of Lords, the most august Assembly of the Kingdom, there to remain as a lasting Memorial of the Triumphs of British Valour, guided by British Counsels. But because Time, or Accident, or Moths may deface these valuable Shadows, we have endeavoured to preserve their Likeness in the preceding Prints, which, by being multiplied and dispersed in various Hands, may meet with that Security from the Closets of the Curious, which the Originals must scarce always hope for, even from the Sanctity of the Place they are kept in.

Thus far we have been able to go within our own Province; but as a more particular Detail of the Circumstances of this glorious Expedition, which lye blended in our Histories with other Matters, may not be altogether unacceptable, we shall beg Leave to offer the following brief Account of it, collected from the most authentic Writers and Manuscripts.


THE Author and Undertaker of this ever memorable Expedition was Philip II. King of Spain, eldest Son of the renowned Emperor Charles V. In the Year 1554, he married Mary I. Queen of England, with a View of uniting, by this Marriage, the English Dominions to those large and noble Territories of which he was Heir-Apparent. But all his Projects were defeated by a False-Conception the Queen had in 1555; and especially by her Death, which happened on Novemb. 17, 1558.—In 1555, October 25, he became King of Spain, and the Dominions and Territories thereunto belonging, upon the voluntary Resignation of his Father Charles V.

As to King Philip’s real Views and Motives in this Expedition, they seem to have been these:

I. A firm Hope and certain Prospect as he imagin’d, of easily acquiring so considerable an Addition to his Dominions, as the flourishing Kingdoms of England and Ireland. Kingdoms whose Advantages and Excellencies he was well acquainted withal; and from whence he could be continually supplied with Tin, Lead, Wool, and many other useful, necessary, and profitable Commodities.

II. He was also excited by another Motive, which is generally sufficient for Conquerors; and it was this: England and Ireland stood very convenient for him, as being near his Dominions in the Low-Countries; and might, by their advantageous Situation, and the many good Harbours they abound with, have rendered him Master of the Trade and Navigation of these Northern Parts of the World; and, what is more, they would have enabled him to carry it on throughout all North and South-America, exclusively of all others; which is such an Advantage as cannot well be expressed.

III. Moreover these Islands had proved, and might always prove a grievous Thorn in his Side. For, by reason of their Situation, the English could, at any Time, almost totally obstruct the Navigation of the Netherlands, and destroy all their Traffick by Sea. Because, as it must unavoidably be carried on almost within Sight of the British Coasts, so long as the Inhabitants of those Islands remained independent of him[1], and were Masters at Sea, they could seize, with the utmost Ease, the Shipping sent from the Ports of Flanders to the several Parts of the World. What lay therefore so convenient, and was in other Hands so dangerous a Neighbour, must be purchas’d at any Rate.

IV. Revenge may be assigned as another Motive of this Expedition. Queen Elizabeth had assisted all along the States of the United Provinces, in their several Attempts to shake off the Spanish Yoke. Now, that surely was a very great Provocation: And Forgiveness of Injuries, it is well known, was then, no more than at present, a Spaniard’s Virtue. To be revenged therefore of such a constant Enemy as Elizabeth had been, may well be suppos’d to have been an additional Inducement to this Undertaking.

V. This other important Motive is assigned by Hakluyt[2]: “King Philip deemed this to be the most ready and direct Course, to recover his hereditary Possession of the Low-Countries. For, having with little Advantage, for above twenty Years together, waged War against the Netherlands, after mature Deliberation, he thought it most convenient to assault them once more by Sea, which had been fruitlessly attempted several Times before for want of sufficient Forces. And he thought good to begin with England, being persuaded, that the Conquest of that Island was less difficult than the Conquest of Holland and Zealand. Moreover, the Spaniards were of Opinion, that it would be far more behoveful for their King to conquer England and the Low-Countries at once, than to be constrained continually to maintain a warlike Navy, to defend his East and West-India Fleets from the English.”

These (with a Desire of restoring the Roman-Catholick Religion) seem to have been the real and true Motives of this great Expedition.

The Reasons alleged by Philip were these[3]:

I. That Elizabeth had, from the first assisted his rebellious Subjects in the Netherlands, with Men and Money, and spirited them up against him, her greatest Friend and Benefactor; whom she was indebted to for her Life, when her Sister Queen Mary and Gardiner were for removing her out of the Way.

II. Drake, and others of her Subjects, had committed several Depredations in Spain and America.

III. She had been so unnatural as to stop his Money, when, for fear of Pirates, it had been landed in her Dominions; and had put an Embargo on the Vessels employed to carry it to the Low-Countries: (As is related by Camden, under the Year 1568.)

IV. She had acknowledged his Enemy Don Antonio King of Portugal, and armed him against Spain.

V. That it was by her Instruction and Advice the Duke of Alençon had been crowned King of Brabant.

VI. And, moreover, she herself had accepted the Sovereignty of the Low-Countries, and sent the Earl of Leicester thither with considerable Forces; which was an open Declaration of War.

VII. That he undertook it, to revenge the Death of the innocent Queen of Scots.

VIII. And in Compliance with the Holy Father Innocent VIII.’s earnest Injunctions, who ceased not to exhort and importune him, to abolish Heresy in England, and replant the Roman-Catholick Religion there.

In short therefore, the Aim and Design of the King of Spain in this great Expedition, was to conquer England, in order to come more easily at the revolted Netherlands, and facilitate their Reduction to his Obedience; as also, for the Sake of so meritorious an Action, as the bringing this Island back to the Catholick Religion: And to be revenged, at the same Time, for the Disgrace, Contempt, and Dishonour, he had, at several Times, received from the English Nation; and for divers others real or pretended Injuries, which had made a deep Impression on his proud and revengeful Spirit.

Animated and spurred on by these Motives, King Philip made such vast Preparations for his intended Conquest, as had hardily ever been known before in any Age, or Nation: Whether we consider the Time spent about them; or the prodigious Strength and Quantity of the Materials of all Kinds that were provided.

As for the Time spent about these Preparations; King Philip seems to have form’d this Design as early as the Year 1583. [4]For, in that Year, he ordered Alexander Duke of Parma, Governor of the Low-Countries, to procure an exact Account and Description of the Harbours, Castles, Rivers, and Roads belonging to England, and transmit them to him; which was accordingly done: And in this Francis Throckmorton appears to have been concerned. But, according to Rapin, [5]this Project was formed by Philip only from the Time Mary Queen of Scots had been persuaded to convey to him her Right to England, as being the only Means to restore the Catholick Religion[6]: According to the received Maxim in the Church of Rome, That an Heretick is unworthy and incapable of enjoying a Crown; Philip thought he might justly claim that of England, as being the next Catholick Prince descended from the House of Lancaster; namely, from Catharine Daughter of John of Ghent Duke of Lancaster, married in 1389 to Henry, then Prince, and afterwards King, of Castile. Upon this Descent therefore, and the Queen of Scots Conveyance and Will, he had projected the Conquest of England.

However it be, or whenever these Preparations were begun, it is certain that King Philip assembled so powerful a Fleet, and so well furnished with all kinds of Provisions and Ammunition, that, thinking it unconquerable by human Power, he gave it the Title of the Invincible Armada.

[7]This Fleet consisted of one hundred and thirty two Ships, (besides twenty Caravels for the Service of the Army, and ten Salves with six Oars apiece,) containing fifty nine thousand one hundred, and twenty Tons; three thousand, one hundred, and sixty five Cannons; eight thousand, seven hundred, and sixty six Sailors; two thousand and eighty eight Galley-Slaves, and twenty one thousand, eight hundred, and fifty five Soldiers; besides Noblemen and Voluntiers[8]. For there was not a Family in Spain of any Note, but what had a Son, a Brother, or a Kinsman in the Fleet[9]. Of these Voluntiers there were two hundred and twenty four; attended by four hundred and fifty six Servants bearing Arms.

There were also two hundred and thirty eight Gentlemen more, maintained by the King; with one hundred and sixty three Servants. An hundred and seventy seven Persons, with two Engineers, one Physician, one Surgeon, and thirty Servants belonging to the Artillery; eighty five Physicians and Surgeons for the Hospital-Ships; three and twenty Gentlemen belonging to the Duke of Medina-Sidonia’s Court, and fifty Servants; seventeen Superintendants General of the Army; and one hundred Servants more, belonging to them, or to the Officers of Justice, who were twenty in Number[10].

Nay even there were in it one hundred and eighty Capuchins, Dominicans, Jesuits, and Mendicant Friars; with Martin Alarco, Vicar of the Inquisition.

And because none were allowed to have Wives or Concubines on board, some Women had hired Ships to follow the Fleet; two or three of which Ships were driven by the Storm on the Coast of France[11].

Most of the Ships of this Armada[12] were of an uncommon Size, Strength, and Thickness, more like floating Castles than any thing else; and they were cased above Water with thick Planks to hinder the Cannon-Balls from piercing their Sides. The Masts also were braced round with strong pitched Ropes, to save them from being soon shatter’d or broke by the Shot.

Then as to Ammunition, [13]this Fleet had a very great Number of Cannons, double Cannons, Culverins, and Field-Pieces for Land-Service; seven thousand Muskets and Calievers; ten thousand Halberts and Partizans; one hundred and twenty thousand Cannon-Balls; [14]one hundred Quintals of Lead for Bullets (each Quintal being a hundred weight,) twelve thousand Quintals of Match; fifty six thousand Quintals of Gunpowder; and also, Waggons, and other Carriages; Horses, Mules, and other Instruments and Necessaries for Conveyance by Land; Torches, Lanthorns, Canvas, Hides, Lead; Chains, Whips, Butchering-Knives, Halters, and other Instruments of Death and Slavery[15]; and Spades, Mattocks, Baskets, and every thing else requisite for Pioneers Work; as also eight hundred Mules for drawing the Ordnance and Carriages.

Proportionable to these Forces was their great Store of Provisions of every Sort: [16]for, besides Raisins in great abundance, they had eight thousand Quintals of Fish; three thousand Quintals of Rice; six thousand three hundred and twenty [17]Septiers of Beans, Pease, &c. eleven thousand three hundred and ninety eight Pounds of Olive-Oyl; thirty three thousand eight hundred and seventy Measures of Vinegar; ninety six thousand Quintals of Biscuit; three thousand four hundred and fifty eight Quintals of Goats Cheese; six thousand five hundred Quintals of Bacon; one hundred and forty seven thousand Pipes of Wine; twelve thousand Pipes of Water, &c.—Provisions in a word they had for six Months; and so well furnished were they, that Sir Francis Drake observes, in a Letter of his, [18]they had Provisions of Bread and Wine sufficient to maintain forty thousand Men for a whole Year.

The whole Fleet, in general, is said[19] to have contained thirty two thousand Persons, and cost every Day thirty thousand Ducats[20].

The General of the Land Forces, and the Commander in Chief in the whole Expedition, was Don Alfonso Perez de Guzman, Duke of Medina Sidonia; and the Admiral was Don Juan Martinez de Recalde.

But it was not in Spain only, that such great Preparations were carrying on, for the Invasion of England. For, Alexander Duke of Parma was also making on his Side prodigious and amazing Preparations, to assist in this grand Design.

He gathered together out of Spain, France, Savoy, Italy, Naples, Sicily, Germany, and even out of America, a very considerable and choice Army; [21]consisting of about forty thousand Foot, and three thousand Horse; out of which he selected thirty thousand Foot, and eighteen hundred Horse, that were to be ready to pass into England. These Troops were quarter’d as follows: [22]Near Nieuport there lay ready thirty Companies of Italians; ten of Walloons; and eight of Scots, and as many of Burgundians: At Dixmude were eighty Companies of Netherlanders; sixty of Spaniards; sixty of Germans; and above seven hundred fugitive English, Scots, and Irish, under the Command of Sir William Stanley, and Charles Nevil Earl of Westmoreland. There were moreover four thousand Men posted at Corrick, and nine hundred at Watene.

For the Transportation of these Forces, the Duke of Parma prepar’d Ships at Nieuport, Dunkirk, Antwerp, and other Places; and caused some new ones to be built with such Expedition, that they seem’d, as Strada expresses it, [23]to be transform’d in a Moment, from Trees into Ships.

More particularly: [24]In the River of Watten he caused seventy flat-bottom’d Boats to be built, each of which could carry thirty Horses; and to each of them were Bridges fitted for the convenient Shipping, or Landing of the Horses. There were in most of them, two Ovens for baking Bread, with a great Quantity of Saddles, Bridles, Harness, and a good Number of Draught-Horses, to draw the Engines, Cannons, and other Ammunition, after the Spaniards should be landed. Of the same Form he had provided two hundred other Vessels at Nieuport, but not so large. And at Dunkirk he had assembled thirty eight Men of War; for the navigating of which, he had hired Sailors from Bremen, Hamburgh, Emden, and Genoa. In their Ballast he had put a great Quantity of Beams, or thick Planks, sharpned at the Ends, and covered with Iron; but full of Clasps and Hooks on the Sides, that they might be easily joined together. At Graveling, he had provided twenty thousand Casks, which might in a short Time be fastened together with Nails and Cords, and reduced into the Form of a Bridge. Whatever, in a Word, was necessary for making Bridges, or for choaking up the Mouths of Havens and Rivers, was by him got in readiness. And he had even caused a great Pile of wooden Faggots to be laid near Nieuport, for erecting a Mount or Rampart. Whilst he was thus furnishing himself with all proper Vessels and other Necessaries, he caused the shallow and sandy Places of Rivers to be cleared; and had deep Channels cut in proper Places, from Ghent to Ysendyck, Sluys, and Nieuport, on purpose to convey the Ships built at Antwerp, Ghent, &c. into the Sea. Finally, he assembled at Bruges above one hundred Hoys loaden with Provisions, which he designed to bring into the Ports of Flanders, either by the Way of Sluys, or through the forementioned Channels.

The Duke of Guise had also twelve thousand Men on the Coast of Normandy, ready to land in the West of England as soon as the Spanish Armada had enter’d the Channel[25]; but the Spaniards coming two Months later than they intended, (or for some other Reasons) the Duke dismissed his Forces about the End of June.

And that this famous Expedition might be supported with spiritual as well as temporal Weapons[26], Pope Sixtus V created William Allen, a seditious English Priest, Cardinal; and sent him as his Legate into the Low-Countries, with a Bull; wherein, after enumerating the several Causes of Complaint the See of Rome had against Queen Elizabeth, (namely her suppressing the Catholic Religion, her putting the Queen of Scots to Death, &c.) he renewed and confirmed the Sentence of Excommunication pronounced against her by his Predecessors Pius V and Gregory XIII, deprived her, as illegitimate, and an Usurper, from all Princely Dignity, and Dominion over the Kingdoms of England and Ireland; absolved her Subjects from their Allegiance; and strictly enjoined them, upon Pain of God Almighty’s Displeasure, not to lend her any Help or Assistance, but to join the Spanish Army, and the Duke of Parma’s Forces, as soon as they should be landed: Promising withal a plenary Indulgence and the Pardon of all their Sins, to as many as would engage in so laudable an Undertaking.

Such were the extraordinary Preparations made by the Spaniards for invading England. Preparations so great and so dreadful, that all Europe was alarmed at them. Most Sovereigns expected for some Time, with the utmost Horror and Astonishment, where the threatening Storm, which had been so long gathering, would at last fall. But this, though kept as a great Secret, did not long escape the great Sir Francis Walsingham’s Sagacity. [27]He had Intelligence from Madrid, that King Philip had told his Council, he had dispatched an Express to Rome with a Letter writ with his own Hand to the Pope, acquainting him with the true Design of his Preparations, and asking his Blessing upon it; which for some Reasons he would not yet disclose to them, ’till the Return of the Courier. The Secret being thus lodg’d with the Pope, Walsingham, by the means of a Venetian Priest retain’d at Rome as his Spy, got a Copy of the original Letter, which was stolen out of the Pope’s Cabinet by a Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber, who took the Keys out of the Pope’s Pocket whilst he slept. Upon this Intelligence Walsingham found a Way to retard the Spanish Invasion for a whole Year, by getting the Spanish Bills protested at Genoa, which should have supplied them with Money to carry on their Preparations.

Queen Elizabeth, it may well be supposed, could not help being extremely anxious about the issue of the great and dreadful Preparations that were going on, to deprive her of her Crown and Dignity, and perhaps of her [28]Life. This inclined her more readily to embrace some Overtures of Peace, made to her by the Spaniard[29]: But it being soon found out that they were intended only to lull her asleep, and induce her, by depending upon a Peace, to be careless of her own Defence; and moreover, Henry III King of France sending her Word, [30]she ought to stand upon her Guard; she did not therefore rely much on the Negociations in hand, but took all proper Measures for securing herself, and protecting her Dominions.

Her Situation was indeed very melancholy, and her Fears well grounded: For she was without so much as one Ally abroad, except the United-Provinces, which themselves wanted Assistance; and at home she had a factious and discontented Party, ready to join with the Enemy: But, by the Assistance of Heaven, by her good Management, and the sincere Affection of the Generality of her People, she surmounted all Difficulties, and came off Conqueror.

When she was sure the Spaniards Preparations were design’d against her, that she might not be taken unprovided, she fitted out as strong a Fleet as she possibly could; and herein so great was the Diligence of her Subjects, [31]that though her Preparations were begun but about the 1st of November 1587, yet her Fleet was ready to put to Sea by the 20th of December the same Year.

[32]Charles Lord Howard of Effingham, High Admiral of England, a Person of great Prudence and Bravery, was appointed Commander in Chief of this whole Fleet. His Instructions were, To repair to the Westward, in conjunction with Sir Francis Drake Vice-Admiral, and Captain John Hawkins, and Captain Martin Frobisher Rear-Admirals: At the same Time, the Lord Henry Seymour, second Son of the late Duke of Somerset, had Orders to lye on the Coast of Flanders, with forty English and Dutch Ships (the latter under the Command of Justin of Nassau, Admiral of Zealand) to prevent the Duke of Parma’s putting out to Sea with his Forces.

For Land Service, there were disposed along the Southern Coasts of England twenty thousand Men. Besides which, two Armies were raised of choice, well-disciplin’d, and experienced Men; one (under the Command of Robert Dudley Earl of Leicester, consisting of one thousand Horse, and twenty two thousand Foot,) was encamped at Tilbury, near the Thames Mouth, for the Safeguard of the City of London; because it was given out that the Spaniards, after having joined the Duke of Parma, intended to come up the Thames, in order to make themselves Masters of the Metropolis of the Kingdom. The other Army, under the Command of Henry Carey Lord Hunsdon, consisted of thirty four thousand Foot, and two thousand Horse, and was destined to guard the Queen’s Person.

Arthur Lord Grey, Sir Francis Knolles, Sir John Norris, Sir Richard Bingham, and Sir Roger Williams, Knights, and excellent Soldiers, were chosen to consult about the best Way of managing the War at Land. After mature Deliberation, they thought fit that the most convenient Landing-Places for the Enemy, as well out of Spain as out of the Low-Countries, should be well mann’d and fortify’d, namely Milford-Haven, Falmouth, Plymouth, Portland, the Isle of Wight, Portsmouth, the open Coast of Kent called the Downs, the Thames Mouth, Harwich, Yarmouth, Hull, &c. that the Train’d Bands, all along the Maritime Counties, should meet in Arms upon a Signal given, to defend the said Ports, and do their best to prevent the Enemy’s landing; and, in Case of their landing, that they should lay all the Country waste round about, and leave neither Booty nor Forage for them; that they should annoy them Night and Day with continual Alarms, so as to give them no Rest; but not venture the Hazard of a Battle, ’till more Commanders with their Companies should come up; of whom one in every Shire was nominated Chief.

Moreover, the active Queen, in order to quicken the Zeal and Diligence of her Subjects, especially of those who lay near the Sea-Coasts, caused Letters to be sent to the chief of them: Wherein, after putting them in mind of the common and imminent Danger the whole Nation was in, she told them, that she “expected on this extraordinary Occasion, a larger Proportion of Furniture, both for Horsemen and Footmen; thereby to be in their best Strength against any Attempt whatsoever, to be employed, whether about her own Person, or otherwise. And the Number she required them to signify to her Privy-Council[33].” She required moreover the Nobility in the several Counties, to provide themselves, and their Servants and Dependants in like manner, with Horses and Armour, to be ready to repair upon Summons to the Queen, for Defence of her Person: And to this Purpose Letters were address’d to them from the Lords of the Council, by her Command.

Such were the Directions given. [34]And accordingly Cities, Counties, Towns, and Villages, the Cinque-Ports, and all other Havens of England, manifested as great Forwardness in their zealous Love and Duty, as either Subjects could perform, or Prince expect. The City of London, in particular, being requested by the Privy-Council, to find five thousand Men, and fifteen Ships, they willingly and cheerfully furnished thirty Ships provided with all Necessaries, and ten thousand able Men, well armed and trained; besides which, they kept in readiness thirty thousand Men more, prepared to march wherever there should be Occasion[35]; and also lent the Queen fifty one thousand nine hundred Pounds, in ready Money.

Then, as to the rest of the Nation: [36]As soon as it was reported that the Queen was come near London, and the Spanish Fleet appeared in the Channel, the greatest Part of the Nobility, except those that were obliged to stay in each County on account of their Offices, repaired to London, to preserve the Queen’s Person; bringing with them goodly Bands of Horsemen, about five thousand in all, and maintaining them at their own Charge ’till the Spanish Navy was known to be passed beyond Scotland: These were the Lord Chancellor Hatton, the Earls of Lincoln, Warwick, Leicester, Essex, Worcester, and Hereford; the Lord Viscount Montacute; the Lords Burghley, Compton, Morley, Rich, Dacres, Windsor, Audley, Sandes, Mordaunt, Lumley, Mountjoy, Stourton, and Darcy.

In a Word, all Persons throughout England in general, unanimously concurred to be ready to serve for the Defence of the Queen and Kingdom[37]: In this there was no Difference between the Catholic and the Protestant, but herein appeared a perfect Sympathy, Concourse, and Consent of all Sorts of Persons, without respect of Religion. By this hearty Zeal, seconded with suitable Endeavours, it came to pass, that some Counties were able to bring into the Field twenty thousand, and others even forty thousand able fighting Men: The Maritime Counties, in particular, on the South and East of England, from Cornwall to Lincolnshire, were so well furnished with a stout and well regulated Militia, that there was no Place for landing foreign Forces, but within eight and forty Hours there could resort to that Place above twenty thousand fighting Men, with Ordnance and other suitable Provisions.

And that the Popish discontented Party at home might neither join the Enemy, nor favour their Descent, the Queen caused the most obnoxious of them to be imprisoned in Wisbich-Castle in the Isle of Ely.

She also directed [38]Sir William Fitz-Williams, Lord Deputy of Ireland, what to do, in case the Enemy should land in any Part of his Government, and pointed out to him what Precautions he should use to hinder the Irish from rising.

There remained only the King of Scots, of whom Queen Elizabeth had most Reason to be afraid; since she had newly given him an unpardonable Provocation, namely, in causing his Mother to be publickly beheaded, who was a Sovereign Princess, independent of her. This was sufficient to dispose him, out of a Principle of Revenge, to favour the Descent of the Spaniards in one Extremity of the Kingdom, by making a Diversion in the other. With that View he had been tampered with by the Duke of Parma, and had received from him Offers of Assistance[39]: But the politic Queen so effectually caress’d him, made him such advantageous Proposals, and so plainly convinc’d him, that the Loss of England would not fail of being attended with that of Scotland[40]; that he, sensible of the common Danger wherewith he was threatened, declar’d the Spaniards Enemies, and made Preparations against them with great Chearfulness and Alacrity: [41]Giving a strict Charge upon all the Sea-Coasts, that the Spaniards should not be suffered to land in any Part, but that the English might land, and be reliev’d of any Wants: [42]He moreover offer’d Queen Elizabeth his Forces, his Person, and all that he could command, to be employed against the common Enemy: And he humourously observ’d upon this Occasion[43], That he look’d for no other Favour from the Spaniards, than what Polyphemus promis’d Ulysses, that he should be reserv’d for the last Morsel.

After this general Account, the Reader will undoubtedly be pleased to see a particular List of the Fleets on both Sides, which I have accordingly subjoined hereunto.


A complete List of the Spanish Fleet, called
the Invincible Armada[44].

The Squadron of Portuguese Galleons, &c. under the particular Command of the Generalissimo, the Duke of Medina Sidonia.

    Number of Number of
Ships. Burden Tuns. Guns. Mariners. Soldiers.
The St. Martin, Captain General of all the Fleet, 1000 50 177 300
St. John, Admiral General, 1050 50 170 231
St. Mark, 792   117 292
St. Philip, 800 40 117 415
St. Lewis, 830 40 116 376
St. Matthew, 750 40 50 177
St. James, 520 30 100 300
Galleon of Florence, 961 52 100 300
St. Christopher, 352 30 90 300
St. Bernard, 352 30 100 280
Zabra Augusta, 166 13 55 55
Zabra Julia, 166 14 50 60
  7739 389 1242 3086

The Fleet of Biscay, commanded by Don Juan Martinez de Recalde, Captain General.

St. Ann, Admiral, 768 30 114 323
Grangrina, Admiral, 1160 36 100 300
St. James, 660 30 102 250
Conception of Zubelzu, 468 20 70 100
Conception of Juan del Cavo, 418 24 70 164
Magdalena de Juan Francesco d’ Ayala, 330 22 70 200
St. John, 350 24 80 130
Mary, 165 24 100 180
Manuel, 520 16 54 130
St. Mary de Monte Majore, 707 30 50 220
Mary of Aguiare, 70 10 23 30
Isabella, 71 12 23 30
Michael de Susa, 96 12 24 30
St. Stephen, 78 12 26 30
  5861 302 906 2117

The Fleet of Castile, commanded by Don Diego Florez de Valdez, General.

The St. Christopher Galleon, General, 700 40 120 205
St. John Baptist Galleon, 750 30 140 250
St. Peter Galleon, 530 40 140 130
St. John Galleon, 530 30 120 170
St. James the Great Galleon, 530 30 132 230
St. Philip and St. James Galleon, 530 30 116 159
Ascension Galleon, 530 30 114 220
Galleon of our Lady del Barrio, 130 30 108 170
Galleon of St. Medel and Celedon, 530 30 110 170
St. Anne Galleon, 250 24 80 100
Ship, Our Lord of Vigonia, 750 30 130 190
Trinity, 780 30 122 200
St. Katherine, 862 30 160 200
St. John Baptist, 659 30 130 200
Pinnace of our Lady della Rosaria,   24 25 30
St. Anthony of Padua Pinnace,   16 46 300
  8054 474 1793 2924

The Andalusian Squadron, commanded by Don Pedro de Valdez, General.

The General-Ship, 1550 50 118 304
St. Francis Admiral, 915 30 60 230
St. John Baptist Galleon, 810 40 40 250
St. Gargeran, 569 20 60 170
Conception, 862 25 65 200
Duquesa St. Ann, 900 30 80 250
Trinity, 650 20 80 200
St. Mary de Juncar, 730 30 80 240
St. Katherine, 730 30 80 259
St. Bartholomew, 730 30 80 225
Holy Ghost Pinnace,   10 33 40
  8692 315 776 2359

The Squadron of Guypuscoa, commanded by Don Mighel de Oquenda.

St. Ann, General, 1200 50 60 300
Ship, Our Lady of the Rose, Admiral, 945 30 64 230
St. Saviour, 958 30 50 330
St. Stephen, 936 30 70 200
St. Martha, 548 25 70 180
St. Barba, 525 15 50 160
St. Bonaventura, 369 15 60 170
Mary, 291 15 40 120
Santa Cruce, 680 20 40 150
Ursa doncella Hulk, 500 18 40 160
Annunciation Pinnace, 60 12 16 30
St. Barnaby, 60 12 16 30
Magdalene, 60 12 16 30
Pinnace, Our Lady of Guadalupe, 60 12 16 30
  7192 296 608 2120

The Eastern Fleet of Ships, called Levantiscas, commanded by Don Martinez de Vertendona.

The Ragazone, General, 1294 35 90 350
Rama, Admiral, 728 30 80 210
Rata, St. Mary, crowned, 820 40 90 340
St. John of Cecilia, 880 30 70 290
Trinity Valencera, 1000 41 90 240
Annunciation, 730 30 90 200
St. Nicolas, Prodaveli, 834 30 84 280
Juliana, 780 36 80 330
St. Mary of Pison, 666 22 80 250
Trinity Escala, 900 25 90 302
  8632 319 844 2792

The Fleet of Ships, called Urcas, or Hulks, commanded by Don Juan Lopez de Medina.

Great Griffin, General, 650 40 60 240
St. Saviour, Admiral, 650 30 60 230
Sea Dog, 200 10 30 80
White Falcon, 500 18 40 160
Black Castle, 750 25 50 250
Bark of Hamburg, 600 25 50 250
House of Peace, 600 25 50 250
St. Peter the Greater, 600 25 50 250
Sampson, 600 25 50 250
St. Peter the Less, 600 25 50 250
Bark of Dantzick, 450 26 50 210
White Falcon, Mediana, 300 18 30 80
St. Andrew, 400 15 40 160
Little House of Peace, 350 15 40 160
Flying Raven, 400 18 40 210
White Dove, 250 12 30 60
Adventure, 600 19 40 60
Santa Barba, 600 19 40 60
Cat, 400 9 30 50
St. Gabriel, 280 9 25 50
Esayas, 280 9 25 50
St. James, 600 19 40 60
Peter Martin, 200 30 30 80
  10860 466 950 4170

Pataches and Zabras commanded by Don Antonio de Mendoza.

Our Lady del Pilar de Saragossa, 300 12 50 120
English Charity, 180 12 36 80
St. Andrew of Scotland, 150 12 30 51
Crucifix, 150 8 30 50
Our Lady of the Port, 150 8 30 50
Conception of Caraffa, 70 8 30 50
Our Lady of Begova, 70 8 30 50
Conception of Capitillo, 60 8 30 50
St. Hieronymus, 60 8 30 60
Our Lady of Grace, 60 8 30 60
Conception of Francis Lastero, 60 8 30 60
Our Lady of Guadalupe, 60 8 30 60
St. Francis, 60 8 30 60
Holy Ghost, 60 8 30 60
Our Lady of Frenesda, 60 8 30 60
Zabra of the Trinity, 60 8 30 60
Zabra of our Lady del Castro, 60 8 30 60
St. Andrew, 60 8 30 60
Conception, 60 8 30 60
Conception of Sommariba, 60 8 30 60
Santa Clara, 60 8 30 60
St. Katherine, 60 8 30 60
St. John de Caraffa, 60 8 30 60
Assumption, 60 8 30 60
  2090 204 746 1103

The four Galleasses of Naples, commanded by Don Hugo de Moncada.

St. Laurence General, 50   130 270
Patrona, 50   112 180
Girona, 50   120 170
Neopolitana, 50   115 124
  200   477 744

These four Galleasses had Slaves 1200.

The four Gallies of Portugal, commanded by Don Diego de Medrana.

The Capitana, 50   106 110
Princess, 50   106 110
Diana, 50   106 110
Vazana, 50   106 110
  200   424 440

In these four Gallies were Slaves 888.

The List of the English Fleet[45].
Ships. Tuns. Sailors. Captains.
The Ark Raleigh, 800 425 The Lord Charles Howard, Lord High Admiral.
Elizabeth Bonaventure, 600 250 The Earl of Cumberland.
Rainbow, 500 250 The Lord Henry Seymor.
Golden Lion, 500 250 The Lord Thomas Howard.
White Bear, 1000 500 The Lord Edmund Sheffield.
Vanguard, 500 250 Sir William Winter.
Revenge, 500 250 Sir Francis Drake, Vice-Admiral.
Elizabeth Jonas, 900 500 Sir Robert Southwell.
Victory, 800 400 Sir John Hawkins, Rear-Admiral.
Antelope, 400 160 Sir Henry Palmer.
Triumph, 1100 500 Sir Martin Forbisher.
Dreadnought, 400 200 Sir George Beeston.
Mary-Rose, 600 250 Edward Fenton.
Nonpareil, 500 250 Thomas Fennar.
Hope, 600 250 Robert Cross.
Galley Bonavolta,   250 William Buroughs.
Swift-sure, 400 200 Edward Fennar.
Swallow, 300 160 Richard Hawkins.
Foresight, 300 160 Christopher Baker.
Aid, 250 120 William Fennar.
Bull, 200 100 Jeremy Turner.
Tyger, 200 100 John Bostock.
Tramontana, 150 70 Luke Ward.
Scout, 120 70 Henry Ashley.
Achates, 100 60 George Rigges.
Charles, 70 40 John Roberts.
Moon, 60 40 Alexander Clifford.
Advice, 50 40 John Harris.
Spy, 50 40 Ambrose Ward.
Martin, 50 35 Walter Gower.
Sun, 40 30 Richard Buckley.
Signet, 30 20 John Shrive.
Brigantine,   35 Thomas Scot.
George Hoye, 120 24 Richard Hodges.
  11850 6279  
2. Ships serving by Tunnage with the Lord Admiral.
White Lion, 140 50 Charles Howard.
Disdain, 80 45 Jonas Bradbery.
Lark, 50 30 Thomas Chichester.
Edward of Malden, 180 30 William Pierce.
Marigold, 30 20 William Newton.
Black Dog, 20 10 John Davis.
Catherine, 20 10  
Fancy, 50 20 John Paul.
Poppin, 20 8  
Nightingal, 160 16 John Doate.
  750 239  
3. Ships serving with Sir Francis Drake.
The Galleon Leicester, 400 160 George Fennar.
Merchant Royal, 400 160 Robert Flyke.
Edward Bonaventure, 300 120 James Lancaster.
Roebuck, 300 120 Jacob Whitton.
Golden Noble, 250 110 Adam Seigar.
Griffin, 200 100 William Hawkins.
Minion, 200 80 William Winter.
Bark Talbot, 200 90 Henry White.
Thomas Drake, 200 80 Henry Spendelow.
Spark, 200 90 William Spark.
Hopewell, 200 100 John Marchaunt.
Galleon Dudley, 250 100 James Erizey.
Virgin, God-save-her, 200 80 John Greenfield.
Hope of Plymouth, 200 70 John Rivers.
Bark Bond, 150 70 William Poole.
Bark Bonner, 150 70 Charles Cæsar.
Bark Hawkins, 150 70 ... Pridexe.
Unity, 80 70 Humphry Sidnam.
Elizabeth-Drake, 60 30 Thomas Seely.
Bark Buggins, 80 50 John Langford.
Frigat Elizabeth Fonnes, 80 50 Roger Grant.
Bark Sellinger, 160 80 John Sellinger.
Bark Mannington, 160 80 Ambrose Mannington.
Golden Hind, 50 30 Thomas Flemming.
Makeshift, 60 40 Peerce Leman.
Diamond of Dartmouth, 60 40 Robert Holland.
Speedwell, 60 14 Hugh Harding.
Bear-Young, 140 70 John Young.
Chance, 60 40 James Foues.
Delight, 50 30 William Cox.
Nightingale, 40 30 John Grisling.
Carvel, 30 24  
  5120 2348  
4. London Ships, fitted out by the City.
Hercules, 300 120 George Barnes.
Toby, 250 100 Robert Barret.
May-Flower, 200 90 Edward Banks.
Minion, 200 90 John Dales.
Royal-Defence, 160 80 John Chester.
Ascension, 200 100 John Bacon.
Gift of God, 180 80 Thomas Luntlowe.
Primrose, 200 90 Robert Bringboorn.
Margaret and John, 200 90 John Fisher.
Golden Lion, 140 70 Robert Wilcox.
Diana, 80 70  
Bark Burre, 160 70 John Saracole.
Teigur, 200 90 William Cæsar.
Bersabe, 160 70 William Furthoe.
Red Lion, 200 90 Jarvis Wild.
Centurion, 250 100 Samuel Foxcraft.
Passport, 80 40 Christopher Colthirst.
Moonshine, 60 30 John Brough.
Thomas Bonaventure, 140 70 William Adridge.
Relief, 60 30 John King.
Susan Ann Parnell, 220 80 Nicholas George.
Violet, 220 60 Martin Hakes.
Solomon, 170 80 Edmund Musgrave.
Ann Francis, 180 70 Christopher Lister.
George Bonaventure, 200 80 Eleazar Hikeman.
Jane Bonaventure, 100 50 Thomas Hallwood.
Vinyard, 160 60 Benjamin Cook.
Samuel, 140 50 John Vassel.
George Noble, 150 80 Henry Bellinger.
Anthony, 110 60 George Harper.
Toby, 140 70 Christopher Pigott.
Salamander, 120 60 ... Samford.
Rose Lion, 110 50 Barnaby Acton.
Antelope, 120 60 ... Dennison.
Jewel, 120 60 ... Rewell.
Paunce, 160 70 William Butler.
Providence, 130 60 Richard Chester.
Dolphin, 160 70 William Hares.
  6130 2710  
5. Coasters with the Lord Admiral.
Bark Web, 80 50  
John Trelawny, 150 70 Thomas Meeke.
Hart of Dartmouth, 60 30 James Houghton.
Bark Potts, 180 80 Anthony Potts.
Little John, 40 20 Lawrence Cleyton.
Bartholomew of Apsham, 130 70 Nicolas Wright.
Rose of Apsham, 110 50 Thomas Sandy.
Gift of Apsham, 25 20  
Jacob of Lime, 90 50  
Revenge of Lime, 60 30 Richard Bedford.
William of Bridgewater, 70 30 John Smith.
Crescent of Dartmouth, 140 75  
Galleon of Weymouth, 100 50 Richard Miller.
Katherine of Weymouth, 60 30  
John of Chichester, 70 50 John Young.
Hearty Ann, 60 30 John Winoll.
Minion of Bristol, 230 110 John Satchfield.
Unicorn of Bristol, 130 66 James Laughton.
Handmaid of Bristol, 85 56 Christopher Pitt.
Aid of Bristol, 60 26 William Megar.
  1930 993  
6. Coasters with the Lord Henry Seymor.
Daniel, 160 70 Robert Johnson.
Galleon Hutchins, 150 60 Thomas Tucker.
Bark Lamb, 150 60 Leonard Harvel.
Fancy, 60 30 Richard Fearn.
Griffin, 75 35 John Dobson.
Little Hare, 50 25 Matthew Railston.
Handmaid, 75 35 John Gatenbury.
Marygold, 150 70 Francis Johnson.
Matthew, 35 16 Richard Mitchel.
Susan, 40 20 John Musgrave.
William of Ipswich, 140 30 Barnaby Lewe.
Katherine of Ipswich, 125 50 Thomas Grimble.
Primrose of Harwich, 120 40 John Cardinal.
Ann-Bonaventure, 60 50 John Conny.
William of Rye, 80 60 William Coxon.
Grace of God, 50 30 William Fordred.
Ellnathan of Dover, 120 70 John Lidgier.
Reuben of Sandwich, 110 68 William Crippt.
Hazard of Feversham, 38 34 Nicolas Turner.
Grace of Yarmouth, 150 70 William Musgrave.
May-flower, 150 70 Alexander Musgrave.
William of Brickelsea, 100 50 Thomas Lambert.
John Young, 60 30 Reynold Veyzey.
  2248 1073  
7. Volunteers with the Lord Admiral.
Samson, 300 08 John Mingfield.
Francis of Foy, 140 0 John Resbley.
Heath-Hen of Weymouth, 60 0  
Golden Rial of Weymouth, 120 0  
Bark Sutton of Weymouth, 70 0 Hugh Preston.
Carowse, 50 5  
Samaritan of Dartmouth, 250 0  
William of Plymouth, 120 0  
Gallego of Plymouth, 30 0  
Bark Haulse, 60 0 Greenfield Haulse.
Unicorn of Dartmouth, 76 0 Ralph Hawes.
Grace of Apsham, 100 0 Walter Edney.
Thomas Bonaventure, 60 0 John Pentyre.
Rat of Wight, 80 0 Gilbert Lea.
Margett, 60 46 William Hubberd.
Elizabeth of Laystaff, 40 30  
Raphael, 40 30  
Fly-boat Young, 60 40 Nicolas Webb.
  1716 859  
8. Victuallers.
Sailors Captain
Elizabeth Bonaventure of London, 60  
Pelican, 50  
Hope, 40  
Unity, 40  
Pearl, 50  
Elizabeth of London, 60  
John of London, 70  
Barsaby, 60  
Marygold, 50  
White Hind, 40  
Gift of God, 40  
Jonas of Alborough, 50  
Solomon of Alborough, 60  
Richard Duffield, 70  
Mary Rose, 70 Francis Burnell.
John of Barnstaple, 40  
Greyhound of Alborough, 65  
Jonas, 30  
Fortune of Alborough, 25  
Hearts-Ease, 24 Henry Harpham.
Elizabeth of Low Astoff, 30  
A Galley, not specified by Name, 250  


BOTH Sides being thus fitted out, and prepared for Action, let us now proceed,

Thirdly, To give an Account of the Expedition, and the several Engagements between the two Fleets, with the final Event of the whole.

The King of Spain’s Instructions to his General, were[46], To repair to Calais Road, and there wait for the Arrival of the Duke of Parma, who had Orders to join him with his Fleet and Forces; and, upon their meeting, to open a Letter directed to them both, with further Orders [particularly, to advance up the Thames, and attack London.] He was strictly enjoined, in the mean time, to sail along the Coasts of Bretagne and Normandy, in order to avoid being discovered by the English Fleet; and if unexpectedly he should meet them, not to offer Battle, but act only upon the Defensive.

With these Instructions, the Spanish Fleet set sail on the 19th of May from the Tagus, and steer’d for the Groyne, the Place of general Rendezvous. But they had not been long at Sea, before they were so dispersed by a violent Storm, off of Cape Finisterre, that scarce the third Part of them reached, some Days after, the intended Port: And three of the Gallies, by the Stratagem of David Gwyn, an English Slave, assisted by some of the Moorish Rowers, were run into a Harbour of France[47].

In the mean time, the Lord Howard having continued a good while upon the Narrow Seas between England and Flanders[48], sent Sir Francis Drake towards the Western Coasts, with about fifty Sail, great and small; intending to follow himself, with a stronger Force, if there should be Occasion. For the present he remained in the Downs, with the Lord Henry Seymour his Vice-Admiral, where they had under their Command twenty Ships belonging to the City of London, with several other Vessels fitted out by the Coast-Towns, from the Thames to Newcastle. But News being brought of the Armada’s being ready to put to Sea, the Admiral left the Lord Henry Seymour with a convenient Number of Ships, to watch the Duke of Parma’s Motions; and setting Sail on the 21st of May, with about thirty Vessels of all Sorts, arrived on the 23d at Plymouth. Here he was joined by Sir Francis Drake, whom he constituted his Vice-Admiral, and whose Squadron, by the Addition of some Vessels from the Western Ports, amounted now to sixty Sail.

The Lord Howard, upon his Arrival at Plymouth, gave Orders for the Victualling, and putting in Readiness, the whole Fleet, which now consisted in all of about ninety Ships and Barks. As soon as it was ready he put out to Sea, and cruized at the Channel’s Mouth, between Ushent and Scilly, looking out for the Spanish Fleet. He thus continued cruizing for several Days, sometimes upon the Coast of France, and sometimes upon that of England; and, at last, hearing nothing of the Spaniards, returned to Plymouth, for a new Supply of Victuals, and other Necessaries.

Mean while, fourteen Spanish Ships were discovered between Ushent and Scilly, which were afterwards known to have been separated from the rest of the Fleet by the late Storm. But before they could be met with by any English Ships, they had a Northerly Wind, which carried them back to the Groyne; where, and at the neighbouring Ports, the whole Fleet took in their Soldiers and Warlike Provisions.

The Spanish Fleet, as has been said above, had been dispersed, and somewhat disabled by a violent Storm. This had like to have proved more fatal to the English than to the Spaniards themselves[49]. For it being reported all over Europe, that the whole Spanish Fleet was destroyed, Queen Elizabeth and her Ministers thought that it was at least so damaged, as that it could not proceed ’till the next Year. Relying therefore upon this Intelligence, which they took for certain, Secretary Walsingham signified the Queen’s Pleasure to the Lord High-Admiral, to send back four of his largest Ships into Port. His Lordship had, in the mean time, likewise Intelligences sundry ways, that the Enemy’s Fleet was dispersed into several Ports of Spain, distressed, spoiled, in want of Provisions, and with a great Mortality among the Men. This, however, happened to be only a false Rumour. The Lord-Admiral not thinking it safe to depend upon such Uncertainties, when the Nation’s All was at Stake, got the Order countermanded; alledging how dangerous it was to be too credulous in a matter of such Importance, and that he would rather keep the Ships out at his own Charge, than hazard his Country’s Safety. But, in order to be fully satisfied, (as he was sure that the Coasts of England and France, which he had examined, were clear) he thought proper[50], with the Advice of a Council of War, to take the Opportunity of the first Northerly Wind, and go in quest of the Spanish Fleet, in the Groyne, and other Ports of Gallicia; and there utterly destroy it, if it were already so disabled as was reported; or, if otherwise, to get certain Intelligence concerning its true State and Condition. Accordingly his Lordship made Sail for the Coast of Spain, with a Northerly Wind, and held the same Course for about three Days, from the 8th to the 10th of July. He was not then above forty Leagues from that Kingdom, when being informed that the Enemy’s Fleet was not so much damaged as reported, and the Wind coming to be Southerly, he judged it best (as his Instructions were to guard the English Coasts,) to return to Plymouth; lest the same Wind should bring the Enemies out, and carry them by him, unseen, towards England. He arrived at Plymouth the 12th of July, and with great Expedition supplied his Fleet with whatever Necessaries were wanting.

His Caution was indeed very seasonable: For with the same Southerly Wind the Duke of Medina Sidonia sailed, with the whole Fleet under his Command, from the Groyne, on the 12th of July, (the very same Day the Lord Admiral arrived at Plymouth,) and in two or three Days detached a Yatch to the Duke of Parma, with Notice of his being advanced so far. He pressed him at the same Time, to be ready with the Troops and Ships he was directed to provide, in order to pass over into England under his Convoy, as soon as he should be arrived in the Streights of Dover.

While the Spanish Fleet lay at the Groyne[51], an English Fisherman that was taken and brought to that Place, gave the Enemies, either out of Ignorance or Design, this false Account: “That the English Fleet had lately been at Sea; but seeing no Prospect of the Spaniards pursuing their Design that Year, was returned, and the greater Part of the Men belonging to the Ships discharged.” This false Intelligence made the Duke of Medina Sidonia deviate from his Instructions; and as he vainly supposed that he could easily surprise our Fleet, and burn or otherwise destroy it, he resolved not to lose so glorious an Opportunity. Instead therefore of going directly to join the Duke of Parma, a Resolution was taken in the Spanish Fleet, to bend their Course towards England.

[52]On the 16th of July there was a Calm and a thick Fog ’till Noon. Then the North East Wind blew very strong, and presently after the West Wind ’till Midnight; and then the East-South-East Wind; insomuch that the Spanish Fleet being thereby dispersed, was hardly joined again ’till it came within Sight of England. At length this Fleet, after an indifferent Passage over the Bay of Biscay, arrived July 19, in Sight of England and entered the Channel. The first Land they made was the Lizard, which they took to be the Ram’s Head near Plymouth; but Night approaching, they stood off, designing the next Morning to attack the English Ships in Plymouth Harbour.

The same Day[53], the Lord Admiral was informed by Captain Thomas Flemming, Commander of the Golden Hind Pinnace, who had been left in the Channel for Discovery, that |Plate 1.| the Spanish Fleet was seen near the Lizard, the Wind being then Southerly, or South-West. Tho’ the Wind blew hard into Plymouth-Sound, and the Intelligence was not received ’till about four o’ Clock in the Afternoon, yet his Lordship, with much Diligence and Industry, got out the same Evening with six of his Ships, and anchored with them alone the whole Night, without the Harbour.

[54]The next Day, July 20, the Lord High-Admiral, accompanied with fifty four Ships of his Fleet, that had plied out of the Sound, notwithstanding the South-West Wind, advanced towards the Enemy. They were scarce got as far as the Eddystone, when they discovered, about Noon, the Spanish Fleet to the |Plate 2.|Westward, opposite to Fowey, in form of a half Moon (the Points whereof were about seven Miles asunder) coming slowly up the Channel, tho’ with full Sails. The English suffered them to pass by unmolested, that they might chace them in the rear, with all the Advantage of the Wind.

The next Morning, July 21, all the English Ships being then come out of Plymouth, and in number near a hundred, had recovered the Wind of the Spaniards[55], two Leagues to the Westward of Eddystone. About Nine o’ Clock, the Lord-Admiral sent his Pinnace, named the Defiance[56], to denounce War against the Enemy, by the Discharge of all her Guns. He himself immediately seconded her from his own Ship, the Ark-Royal, by thundering furiously on one of the Enemy’s, commanded by Alphonso de Leva, which he mistook for the St. Martin, the Admiral’s Ship; but she was, after a smart Engagement, |Plate 3.|rescued by the Spaniards. In the mean time, Sir Francis Drake, Captain John Hawkins, and Captain Martin Forbisher, vigorously engaged the Enemy’s sternmost Ships, under the Conduit of their Vice-Admiral Recalde; in one of which Recalde himself was supposed to be. He did all that a gallant Officer could do to keep his Ships together; but the Fight was so briskly maintained, that, notwithstanding all his Endeavours, they were forced to retreat to the main Body of the Fleet; and at length, his own Ship being very much damaged with Shot, and grown unserviceable, he retired thither himself, tho’ with much ado.

In this first Engagement Recalde’s Ship lost fifteen Men[57].

At the same time, the Duke of Medina gathered together his Fleet[58], which was dispersed about; and hoisting more Sail, held on his Course with all the Speed he could make. Nor was it in his Power to do otherwise, seeing the Wind favoured the English, and their Ships were so light and nimble, that they would charge, wind, and tack about with incredible Swiftness; whereas the Spanish great and heavy Slugs, stood like so many Butts for the English Shot. Although the Spaniards were so briskly charged by the English, they made a running Fight of it; and, after a smart Engagement of two Hours, the Lord High-Admiral thought fit to desist, because forty of his Ships were not yet come up, being scarce got out of Plymouth Haven[59]. So not proceeding any farther, he gave the Signal for a Council of War;——Wherein his Lordship’s prudent and considerate Advice being very much approved, Orders were delivered to each Captain, in what manner they should pursue the Enemy.

The Night following, one of the Spanish Ships, called the St. Katherine, having received much Damage in the Fight, was brought into the midst of their Fleet, to be repaired[60]. And a large Biscayan Ship of eight hundred Tuns, belonging to Michael de Oquendo, Admiral of the Guypuscoan Squadron, on board of which was the Treasurer of the Fleet, was designedly set on Fire by a Dutch Gunner, who had been ill used[61]; but the Spaniards took out the best Part of the Money, when they saw the Ship in Danger; and after her upper Part was burnt and blown up, the Flame was extinguished by some Ships that came seasonably to her Assistance. But one of them, a great Galleon, commanded by Don Pedro de Valdez, sprung her Foremast and Boltsprit, by falling foul of another Vessel in the Hurry and Confusion; and so, not being able to keep Company with the rest of the Fleet, was left behind. The Night being extremely dark, and the Sea running so high, that no Succour could come to her, she fell the next Day, July 22, into the Hands of |Plate 4.|Sir Francis Drake; who had her conducted to Dartmouth, and sent the Captain, and some other Gentlemen who were on board, Prisoners to Plymouth, where they remained eighteen Months, ’till their Ransoms were paid. In this Galleon was found fifty five thousand Ducats of Gold, which Drake’s Men shared amongst themselves.

[62]This Night the Spanish Fleet bore along by the Start, and the next Morning was as far to the Leward as the Berry[63]. Sir Francis Drake had been ordered to carry Lights; but being in full Chace of some German Hulks, or Merchant-Men, which he discovered late in the Evening, and took for Enemies, he happened to neglect it; which occasioned most of the Fleet to lye by all Night, because not seeing the Lights, they knew not whom to follow. For that Reason, Sir Francis, and the rest of the Fleet, did not come up ’till the next Evening with the Lord Admiral; who, accompanied only with the Bear and the Mary Rose, had pursued the Enemy, within Culverin Shot, all the foregoing Night. [64]Thro’ this Mistake, the rest of the English Fleet staid so far behind, that the next Morning the nearest could scarce be seen half Mast high, and very many were quite out of Sight.

July 22. This whole Day the Spanish Admiral spent in disposing his Fleet in the best Order he could think of. [65]He commanded Alphonso de Leva to bring the first and the last Squadron together; and assigning every particular Ship its proper Station in Battle, according to the Plan agreed on in Spain, enjoined their respective Commanders to keep the same on Pain of Death. He also dispatch’d Glich, an Ensign, to the Prince of Parma, to advise him of his near Approach, and inform him of the State of the Navy. In the mean time, the forementioned Ship of Oquendo having been much damaged by the Fire, the Spanish Admiral ordered, after the Officers, Men, and Money were removed into another Vessel, |Plate 5.|that she should be abandoned, and set adrift[66]. Whereupon, the Lord High-Admiral sent the Lord Thomas Howard, and Captain Hawkins in a small Skiff on board her, who found her in a very pitiful Condition. Her Decks were fallen in, the Steerage broken, the Stern blown out, and about fifty poor Creatures burnt with Powder in a most miserable manner. The Stench, as well as the horrible Spectacle, soon made them return to the Lord-Admiral; who ordered the Bark Fleming to conduct her into some Port, and accordingly she was brought the next Day into Weymouth.

The Night following prov’d very calm; during which, the four Galleasses of Naples singling themselves from the rest of the Enemy’s Fleet, gave Reason to suspect that they had a Design to distress some of the small English Vessels, which were short of the Fleet; but their Courage failing them, they attempted nothing.

On the 23d the Wind turning to the North-East, the Spaniards took the Advantage of it; and when they came over against Portland, tacked about upon the English, who presently tacked likewise, and stood in to the North-West, towards the Shore, as did the Spaniards also. But that Course not being good for the English to recover the Wind of the Spaniards, the former cast about to the Eastward. And, after several Attempts on both Sides to get the Weather-gage, the Spaniards offering to board the English, a smart Engagement began, which was managed with Confusion enough, and with Variety of Success. The Enemy seeing several of the English Ships waited their coming, particularly the Ark, the Nonpareil, the Elizabeth-Jonas, the Victory, &c. they fell a stern the Nonpareil, which was the hindmost Ship; and in the mean time, the Triumph, with the Merchant-Royal, the Centurion, the Margaret and John, the Mary-Rose, and the Golden-Lion, were so far to the Leeward, and at such a Distance from the rest of the Fleet, that the Galleasses took Courage, and bearing down upon them, attacked them very vigorously; but they gave them a warm Reception for an Hour and a half, ’till some of her Majesty’s Ships came to their Relief.

The Wind then shifted to the South-East, and afterwards to the South-South-West; |Plate 6.|whereupon a Body of English Ships, and several Merchant-Men attacked the Spanish Fleet so sharply to the Westward, that it was all forced to give way. The Lord-Admiral perceiving this, and observing at the same Time the Distress which the Triumph and the five Ships above mentioned in her Company, were in, he ordered some Ships that were then near at hand, to follow him, and to set upon the Spaniards a-fresh; and he strictly charged them, to go within Musket-Shot of the Enemy, before they discharged any one Piece of Ordnance, that they might have a better Mark, and more effectually succour the Triumph. This was immediately performed by the Ark, the Elizabeth-Jonas, the Galleon of Leicester, the Golden Lion, the Victory, the Mary Rose, the Dreadnought, and the Swallow; for in that order they proceeded. The Duke of Medina perceiving their Design, came out with sixteen of his best Galleons, to intercept the Lord Admiral, and stop him from assisting the Triumph. But, after a very sharp Conflict, the Spaniards were forced to give way, and for their greater Safety to gather themselves close into a Roundel, their best and largest Ships standing outermost, and fencing the lesser and the most battered. In this Conflict, William Coxe, Captain of a small Pinnace of Sir William Winter’s, nam’d the Delight, was slain by a great Shot, while he was bravely fighting against the Enemy.

Towards the Evening, four or five of the Spanish Vessels edged out of the South-Westward, where they were met by some of our Ships; amongst which, the May-Flower of London valiantly discharged some Pieces of Cannon at them; and, on this and other Occasions, that Ship’s Company behaved with great Resolution and Courage.

Thus the Fight continued from Morning till Night, being managed with great Bravery; but the Spaniards Shot flew, for the most part, over the Heads of the English, without doing Execution[67]; the reason of which was, that the English Ships being far less than the Enemy’s, made the Attack with more Quickness and Agility; and when they had given a Broad-Side, sheer’d off to a convenient Distance; and levell’d their Shot so directly at the larger and more unwieldy Ships of the Spaniards, as seldom to miss their Aim. Some advis’d the Lord-Admiral, with more Heat than Discretion, to grapple with and board them; but he thought it neither safe nor convenient; because the Enemy’s Fleet had a considerable Army on board, whereas ours had no such Advantage; besides their Ships far exceeded the English in Number and Bulk, and were much stronger and higher built; insomuch that their Men having the Opportunity to ply the others from such lofty Decks, must inevitably have destroyed those that were obliged, as it were, to fight beneath them. And he foresaw likewise, that the Damage and Disgrace of a total Defeat would much outweigh the Advantage of a Victory, should he happen to obtain it; since, if he was vanquished, it would have much endangered the Safety of the whole Kingdom; but if he got the better, he could obtain no more than the naked Credit of putting a Fleet in Disorder, and baffling an Enemy.——In this Day’s Engagement, a great Venetian Ship, with several other smaller ones were taken by the English[68].

On the 24th of July, there was but little done[69]; the Fight being only between four great Galleasses and some English Vessels[70]. The Spaniards, upon this Occasion had great Advantage, since their Ships had Oars, and ours, by reason of a Calm, had no use of their Sails. However, the English galled the Enemy very much with their Cannon and Chain-Shot; but at last, wanting Powder and other Necessaries to continue the Fight, the Lord Admiral sent some Vessels into the next Port for a Supply. In the mean time, a Council of War was held, wherein it was agreed, That the Fleet should be divided into four Squadrons, to be commanded, the first by the Lord Admiral himself in the Ark-Royal; the second by Sir Francis Drake in the Revenge; the third by Captain Hawkins; and the fourth by Captain Forbisher. [71]This Afternoon, his Lordship gave order, that in the Night, six Merchant-Ships out of every Squadron (as being the lightest) should set upon the Spanish Fleet in several Places at once; but it being calm all that Night, nothing could be done.

The next Morning, July 25, both |Plate 7.|Fleets being come over against the Isle of Wight, (which the Spaniards had resolved to make themselves Masters of,) and not above a hundred Yards asunder, a terrible Fight began[72]. The St. Ann, a large Portuguese Galleon, being short of the rest to the Southward, because not able to keep up with them, was attack’d by some of Captain Hawkins’s Squadron, which stood next to it; who causing themselves to be towed along, attempted to board her, and went so close, that their Boats were beaten off with Musket-Shot: Leva and Don Diego Telles Enriques perceiving the Galleon’s Danger, issued out of the Spanish Fleet with three Galleasses, and endeavoured to rescue her; but they were so warmly received by the Lord Admiral himself, and the Lord Thomas Howard in the Golden Lion, who, by reason of the Calm, had their Ships tow’d along with Boats, that the Galleon was got off with much Difficulty, and not without Loss; for one of the Galleasses was forc’d to be carried away upon the Careen; another, by a Shot from the Ark, lost her Lanthorn; and the third her Peak-head. Thus many Shots were interchanged between the Ark and Lion and the Galleasses, in Sight of both Fleets, which looked on, and could not come near by reason of the Calm. At length it began to blow a small Gale, whereupon the Spanish Fleet edged up to succour their Galleasses, and so rescued them; but so roughly were the Galleasses handled, that after this none of them would venture upon any new Engagement.

[73]Then the Fleets drawing near one another the Fight was renewed; but it did not continue long; except that the Nonpareil and the Mary Rose were for some time engaged with the Enemy, and striking their Topsails, lay a while by, and braved the whole Fleet of Spain. In the mean while, the Triumph, to the Northward of the Spanish Fleet, was so far to Leward, that being apprehensive some of the Enemy might weather her, she towed off with the Help of several Boats, and so recovered the Wind. The Bear and the Elizabeth Jonas perceiving her in Distress, bore down to rescue her, and by their Boldness put themselves into the like Danger; but they, however, made their party good, ’till they had recovered the Wind. And thus ended this Day’s Fight, which was very sharp for the time.

[74]The Spaniards gave a different Account of this Day’s Engagement; for they said that the English did miserably batter, with their great Guns, the Spanish Admiral, who lay in the rear; came so near him as to kill many of his Men; brought his Mainmast by the board; and he was in great Danger of being lost, had not Mexia and Recalde come timely to his Assistance; but that, after this, the Spanish Admiral and his Men, seconded by Recalde, and others, set upon the English Admiral, who by the turning of the Wind happily escaped; that the Spaniards from that time gave over the Chace, and keeping on their Course, dispatch’d a Messenger to the Duke of Parma, to desire him to come and join the Armada with his own Squadron as soon as possible; and to send them withal some great Shot for the use of the main Fleet.

[75]However it be, the English had so battered the Enemy in the last Conflict, that the latter had Recourse to the Form of a Roundel for their better Security.

[76]On Friday, July 26, the Lord High-Admiral sent for the Lord Thomas Howard the Lord Sheffield, Roger Townshend, Captain Martin Forbisher, Captain John Hawkins, on board his own Ship the Ark; and there confer’d on them the Honour of Knighthood, as well for a Reward of their good Services in the late Engagement, as for an Encouragement to the rest of the Officers.

[77]Next, a Council of War being held, it was determined, as our Ships began to want Powder and Shot, that they should not attack the Spaniards again ’till they came to the Streights of Calais; because they would there be joined and reinforced by the Squadron under the Command of the Lord Henry Seymour and Sir William Winter, stationed in those Parts to block up the Duke of Parma; and might, at the same time, receive a plentiful Store of Ammunition from our Coasts.

[78]So the Spanish Fleet sailed forward, |Plate 8.|this and the best part of the next Day, with a gentle Gale at South-West and by South, the English following them close, and driving them like Sheep before them; and so far was this Invincible Armada from alarming the Sea-Coasts with any frightful Apprehensions, that a great many of the young Nobility and Gentry entered themselves Volunteers, and taking leave of their Parents, Wives, and Children, did, with incredible Chearfulness, hire Ships at their own Charge; and, in pure Love to their Country, joined the Grand Fleet in vast numbers: [79]Among which were, the Earls of Oxford, Northumberland, and Cumberland; the Lord Dudley; Sir Thomas, Sir Robert, and William Cecil; Sir Henry Brooke, Sir William Hatton, Sir Charles Blount, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Robert Carey, Sir Ambrose Willoughby, Sir Thomas Vavasor, Sir Horatio Pallavicini; Thomas Gerard, Henry Nowel, Edward Darcy, Thomas Woodhouse, William Harvey, Arthur Gorges, and others; [80]and at the same time, the Justices of Peace in the maritime Counties, as also the Earl of Sussex, Sir George Carey, and the Captains of the Forts and Castles along the Sea-Coasts, sent Ships, Men, Powder, Shot, Victuals, and all kinds of Provisions, for the Relief and Assistance of the main Fleet.

[81]July 27. This Day, towards the Evening, the Spanish Fleet came to an Anchor before Calais; [82]intending for Dunkirk, where they were to join the Prince of Parma’s Forces; [83]but their Pilots having told them, that, if they ventured any farther, they should be in danger of being carried away by the Force of the Tide into the Northern Channel, for that Reason they proceeded no farther than Calais; the English, on their part, followed them close, and anchored within Culverin-Shot of them; and, by the accession of the Ships under the Lord Henry Seymour and Sir William Winter, consisted now of a hundred and forty Sail, all stout Ships, and nimble and good Sailors; tho’ the main Brunt of the Engagement lay but upon fifteen or sixteen of them.

The Spaniards now sent several Messengers, one after another, to the Duke of Parma, to press and importune him to send out forty Fly-Boats to their Assistance; without which, by reason of the Unwieldiness of their Ships, they could not, as they said, engage the light and active Vessels of the English; they entreated him likewise, with great Earnestness, to use all Speed in embarking his Army, and be ready to take the first Opportunity, under their Protection, of landing in England; but it seems he was not ready, and so could not answer their Summons; his flat-bottom’d Boats were all leaky, his Provisions not yet all brought in, and his Sailors, who had been hitherto kept together against their Wills, had deserted in great numbers; besides, thirty five Men of War belonging to Holland and Zealand, commanded by Count Justin de Nassau, continued to block up the very Mouth of the Harbours of Dunkirk and Nieuport, from whence alone he could put to Sea; and so well were they furnished with great Guns and small Arms, that he could not possibly put from Shore, without running a very great and manifest Danger; however, intending as soon as he conveniently could, to join the Spanish Fleet, he sent a Pinnace to inform the Duke of Medina, “[84]That he could not be ready for them ’till the Friday following, September 4;” but the Spanish Fleet was forced to depart before that time, in the utmost Hurry and Confusion.

[85]For, on July 28, the next Day |Plate 9.|after their coming to an Anchor, the Lord Admiral, by the Queen’s express Command and Direction, singled out eight of his worst Ships; bestowed upon them good Plenty of Pitch, Tar, Rosin, and Wildfire; lined them well with Brimstone and other combustible Matter; and loaded all their Cannon with Bullets, Chains, and the like destructive Instruments; thus equip’d, he sent them with the Wind and Tide, about two o’ Clock in the Morning, into the midst of the Spanish Fleet, under the Conduct of —— Young and —— Prowse; who when they were come within Cannon-Shot, set Fire to the Trains, and then retired. The Approach of these Fire-Ships, and the dreadful Blaze which the Fire made all the Sea over, was no sooner perceived by the Spaniards, but it put their whole Fleet into the utmost Consternation. Many of the Soldiers on board had been at the Siege of Antwerp[86], and seen the destructive Machines made use of there: Suspecting therefore that these were big with other Engines of Slaughter, besides the destructive Element that show’d itself without, they began to raise a most hideous Clamour of, Cut your Cables, or get up your Anchors; [87]and in a panic Fright put to Sea with all the Confusion and Precipitancy imaginable.

[88]The Spaniards reported, however, That their Admiral, upon the Approach of the Fire-Ships, made the Signal for weighing Anchor, and standing out to Sea; and ordered that each Ship, after the Danger was over, should return to her Station; that he did return himself, and fired a Gun as a Signal for the rest to do the like; but the Report thereof was heard but by few; because their Fears had so dispersed them, that some were got a considerable way out to Sea, and others among the Shoals on the Coast of Flanders.

However it was, the Spanish Fleet being by this successful Stratagem thus driven from their Station in Calais-Road[89], another very sharp Engagement began the next Morning about Eight o’ Clock, July 29, and continued eight Hours. The chief Galleass, commanded by Hugo de Moncada, having in the last Night’s Confusion lost her Rudder, by falling foul of another Ship’s Cable, and floated up and down for some time before the Wind, endeavoured to save herself by rowing into |Plate 10.|Calais Harbour; which the Lord Admiral perceiving, he dispatch’d Mr. Amias Preston, one of his Lieutenants, into his Long-Boat, with Mr. Thomas Gerrard, Mr. William Hervey, and others, to take her; she did not however surrender ’till after a sharp and doubtful Dispute, wherein Hugo de Moncada was killed, by a Shot in the Head; and the Soldiers and Rowers to the number of four hundred, either drowned or put to the Sword: [90]The Ship and Guns, after the English had freed three hundred Galley-Slaves which were on board, and taken out fifty thousand Ducats of Gold, of the King of Spain’s Money, fell, as a Wreck to Monsieur Gourden, Governor of Calais[91].

[92]In the taking of this Galleass, Mr. Gerard and Mr. Harvey signalized themselves; for they entered it only with their Swords; a thing then commonly spoken of with Admiration, the like having never been hazarded before, considering the Height of this Galleass compar’d to a Ship’s Boat.

[93]The rest of the Spaniards in the mean time, managed their Fleet as well as they could, and stood over against Graveling, where the English once more getting the Weather-Gage of them, deprived them of the Conveniency of Calais-Road, and kept them from receiving any Supplies from Dunkirk.

[94]Whilst the Lord Admiral was employed in taking the forementioned Galleass, Sir Francis Drake in the Revenge, with Mr. Thomas Fennar in the Nonpareil, and the rest of his Squadron, warmly engaged the Spanish Fleet; soon after Sir John Hawkins in the Victory, accompanied with Mr. Edward Fenton in the Mary Rose, Sir George Beeston in the Dreadnought, Mr. Richard Hawkins in the Swallow, and the rest of that Squadron; together with Sir Robert Southwell in the Elizabeth-Jonas, and Mr. Robert Cross in the Hope; bearing up with the Middle of the Spanish Fleet, there continued all that Forenoon a furious Engagement, wherein Sir George Beeston behaved himself very valiantly; they were in the mean time seconded by the Lord Admiral, the Lord Thomas Howard, and the Lord Sheffield, who also acquitted themselves very bravely: Astern of these a great Galleon was attack’d by the Earl of Cumberland and Mr. George Ryman in the Bonaventure, and was likewise battered by the Lord Henry Seymour in the Rainbow, and Sir William Winter in the Vanguard; and tho’ she then recovered the Fleet, yet she sunk the Night following.

[95]On the other hand, the Duke of Medina, with the rest of the Spanish Captains, as Leva, Oquendo, Recalde, &c. having with much ado got clear of the Shallows, were forced to stand the Brunt of the English Fire, ’till they were miserably torn, and in several Places shot through; [96]and a great Galleon of Biscay, of five hundred Tuns, with two Saicks, were sunk. The Galleon St. Matthew, of eight hundred Tuns, commanded by Don Diego de Piementelli, coming to the Assistance of Don Francisco de Toledo, in the St. Philip, another Galleon of seven hundred Tuns, they were both miserably shattered by the Lord Henry Seymour and Sir William Winter; [97]and being driven on the Coast of Ostend, were likewise there roughly handled by the Zealanders; but Piementelli refusing to leave his Ship, (though the Duke of Medina sent him his own,) did all he could to disengage himself; and therefore making towards the Coast of Flanders, he was there again attacked by five Dutch Men of War, and forc’d at last to strike to Peter Dousa[98], one of the Dutch Captains, who carried him into Zealand and, for a Trophy of his Victory, hung his Flag in the Church of Leyden, which reach’d from the top of it to the bottom; [99]during which, a Castilian Ship of four hundred Tuns, was cast away on the Flemish Coast. The St. Philip, after having been driven almost as far as Ostend, where her Commander left her because she proved extremely leaky, was seized by some Ships of Flushing.

Thus did the Fight continue for the best part of this whole Day; during which the Spanish Fleet was closely pursued, extremely battered, and reduced to the utmost Distress[100]. The English Commanders in general, shewed on all Occasions great Resolution and Bravery; and in this last Action, the Earl of Cumberland, the Lords Henry Seymour, Thomas Howard, and Edmund Sheffield; Sir William Winter, Sir Robert Southwell, Sir George Beeston, Sir John Hawkins; and the Captains Edward Fenton, Richard Hawkins, George Ryman, and [101]Robert Cross signalized themselves in a remarkable manner; the latter, in particular, sunk the great Galleon of Biscay above mentioned, and two other Vessels. As for the Spaniards, though some of them performed their Duty, and fought with great Bravery, yet, in general, they acted but faintly, and stood for the most part only upon the defensive, especially after they saw themselves disappointed of the Duke of Parma’s Assistance. “The Duke of Medina, we are told[102], to his Dishonour, was lodged in the Bottom of his Ship for his Safety, and the rest of the Commanders would never turn their Ships, nor stop them, to defend any of their own Friends that were forced to tarry behind, but suffered divers to perish; and so fearful was the Admiral, that if the English had offered to board the Spanish Ships, it was thought they would have yielded without making any Resistance.” [103]In this last Engagement the Spaniards lost five thousand Men, a thousand whereof were drowned[104]; and the next Day two Venetian Ships sunk, having eight hundred and forty three Men on board, which all perished.

[105]After this Fight there remained of the whole Spanish; Fleet but one hundred and ten, or one hundred and twelve Ships, and those extremely battered and shot through, and having their Rigging much damaged with the Shot.

[106]The next Day, July 30, the Lord Admiral ordered the Lord Henry Seymour, and Sir William Winter to return back with their Squadron into the narrow Seas, to guard the Coasts; as for himself, he resolved to follow the Spanish Fleet, ’till they came as far Northward as the Forth in Scotland, if they bent their Course that way; and, in the mean time, he thought it best not to attack them any more, ’till he saw what they proposed to do: However, being persuaded that they intended to put into the Firth of Forth, his Lordship had devised Stratagems, and taken Measures to make an utter End of them there.

[107]July 31. This Day the Spaniards would fain have retreated, early in the Morning, thro’ the Streights of Dover; but the Wind coming up with hard Gales at North West, forced them towards the Coast of Zealand; the English then gave over the Chace, because they perceived them hastening fast enough to their own Destruction; for with the Wind at West North-West, they could not fail of being driven among the Shallows and Sands of that Coast: But the Wind soon happening to come about to the South-West and by West, the Spaniards tacked, and sailing before the Wind, got out of Danger. In the Evening, they held a Council of War, wherein it was unanimously resolved[108], That seeing they were in want of many Necessaries, especially of Cannon-Ball, that the Ships were very much shattered, their Anchors left in Calais-Road, their Provisions short, their Water spent, a great number of their Soldiers slain, many of their Men sick and wounded, and that there was no hopes of the Duke of Parma’s coming out to join them, they should return to Spain, by the North of Scotland. Pursuant to this Resolution, being now out of Danger, and in the main Ocean, and having thrown all their Horses and Mules over board |General Chart.|to save Water, they steer’d Northward, and the English renew’d the Chace after them; now and then the Spanish Ships slacken’d their Sails, and seem’d to stay for the coming up of the English, so that it was generally thought their Fleet would tack about, but they thought best, after all, to keep on their Course Northward.

Here it will not be improper to leave them for a while, and see what was doing in the mean time in England[109].

The 9th of August Queen Elizabeth was pleased, in order both to comfort her People, and to shew her own Magnanimity, to come and view her Army and Camp at Tilbury; the next Morning after her Arrival, she rode with a General’s Truncheon in her Hand, thro’ all the Ranks of the Army, like armed Pallas, attended by the Earls of Leicester and Essex, Henry Norris, Lord Marshall, and others; having the Sword carried before her by the Earl of Ormond; and among other kind and obliging Discourses, made the following most excellent Speech to her Army[110]:

My loving People,

WE have been persuaded by some that are careful of our Safety, to take heed how we commit ourselves to armed Multitudes; but I assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving People. Let Tyrants fear; I have always so behaved myself, that under God I have placed my chiefest Strength and Safeguard in the loyal Hearts and Good-Will of my Subjects; and therefore I am come amongst you, as you see at this time, not for my Recreation and Disport, but being resolved, in the Midst and Heat of the Battle, to live or die amongst you all; to lay down for my God, and for my Kingdom, and for my People, my Honour and my Blood, even in the Dust. I know I have the Body but of a weak and feeble Woman, but I have the Heart and Stomach of a King, and of a King of England too; and think foul Scorn that Parma or Spain, or any Prince of Europe, should dare to invade the Borders of my Realm; to which, rather than any Dishonour shall grow by me, I myself will take up Arms, I myself will be your General, Judge, and Rewarder of every one of your Virtues in the Field. I know already for your Forwardness, you have deserved Rewards and Crowns; and we do assure you, in the Word of a Prince, they shall be duly paid you. In the mean time, my Lieutenant-General shall be in my stead, than whom never Prince commanded a more noble or worthy Subject; not doubting but by your Obedience to my General, by your Concord in the Camp, and your Valour in the Field, we shall shortly have a famous Victory over those Enemies of my God, of my Kingdoms, and of my People.

[111]It is scarce to be conceived what a Spirit of Bravery this great Queen’s Presence and noble Behaviour infus’d into the Officers and Soldiers: [112]They saluted her with Cries, with Shouts, with all Tokens of Love, of Obedience, and of Readiness to fight for her; they praised her stately Person and princely Behaviour, prayed for her Life and Happiness, and cursed all her Enemies, both Traitors and Papists, with earnest Desire to venture their Lives for her Safety: [113]One who was an Eye Witness relates moreover, that “the whole Armie in every Quarter, did devoutely, at certaine Times, sing in her hearing, in a very tunable manner, divers Psalmes put into Forme of Prayers in Praise of Almighty God, which she greatly commended, and with very earnest Speech thanked God with them[114].”

Next, if we look into Flanders, we shall find, [115]that on the 29th of July, the Duke of Parma having paid his Addresses to our Lady of Halle, came to Dunkirk, tho’ something of the latest; for which Reason the Spaniards received him in a very reproachful manner; as if, out of some By-Regards to Queen Elizabeth, he had designedly slipt so fair an Opportunity of doing Wonders for the Service of his Country. The Duke, to appease this Storm, punish’d those who had the Charge of Victualling his Fleet; but, however, he did not attempt to put to Sea, being still block’d up by the Lord Henry Seymour’s and Sir William Winter’s Squadron, which were returned from the Chace. In the mean time, he could not but secretly laugh at the saucy and insolent Brags of the Spaniards, whom he had heard talking at this vain rate, “That where ever they turn’d their Sails, a most certain Victory waited upon their Course, and that the English would not have Courage enough to look them in the Face.”

To return now to the two Fleets. We left the Spaniards sailing Northward, and the English in Pursuit of them: [116]When the latter were come to fifty five Degrees thirteen Minutes North Latitude, and thirty Leagues East of Newcastle, the Lord High Admiral determined to attack the Spanish Fleet again on the Friday following, August 2, but he thought fit to alter his Resolution, chiefly upon these two Accounts: Because he plainly perceived by the Enemies Course, that they had no other Intention but to save themselves, by sailing North, round the British Islands; and, because several of his Ships wanted Victuals and other Necessaries; which was not so much owing to any Neglect, as to the Victuallers not knowing where to send to the Fleet; for the Queen had most amply and carefully provided whatever was convenient and necessary.

It was therefore concluded, to leave the Spanish Fleet to pursue their Course, and to sail for the Firth of Forth; both to get Refreshment, and to perform some other Business which the Lord Admiral thought necessary to be done; but the Wind coming contrary, that is Westerly, the next Day his Lordship altered his Course, and sending only some Advice-Boats to observe the Enemies farther Motion, he returned with the whole Fleet back to England, where they arrived, some at Yarmouth, some at Harwich, and others at the Downs, about the 7th of August.

The Spaniards being now got clear of their troublesome Pursuers, resolv’d to make the best of their way for Spain. [117]Some Suspicions there were, that they design’d to betake themselves to the King of Scots, who was provok’d to an high degree for his Mother’s Death; and therefore, the better to keep him in Temper, Ashby, the Queen of England’s Ambassador in Scotland, made him very considerable Offers, which, however, were not performed: But the Spaniards having now laid aside all Thoughts and Hopes of returning to attack the English; and perceiving their main Safety lay in their Flight, they made no Stop at any Port whatever. [118]About twenty five Ships now remain’d with the Duke of Medina, and forty with Recalde; [119]these, with the rest of the Fleet, sail’d about Cathness for the Coast of Ireland, and pass’d between the Orcades and Fair-Isle, to the sixty first Degree of North Latitude; [120]an unaccustom’d Place for the young Gallants of Spain, that had never felt Storms on the Sea, or cold Weather in August.

[121]When the English left off pursuing the Spaniards, the latter wanted of their whole Fleet fifteen or sixteen Ships; and had lost, in the several Engagements, and by Sickness, eight thousand Men at least.

And here their ill Fortune did not stop, but continued to persecute them all the rest of their Voyage; [122]for on the Coast of Scotland they lost the two following Ships, which had been so extremely battered by the English Shot, that they founder’d at Sea; namely, the St. Matthew, a Ship of five hundred Tuns, in which four hundred and fifty Men were drowned; and a Biscainer of St. Sebastian’s, of four hundred Tuns, in which three hundred and fifty Men perished: [123]Moreover, in these or other Ships, above seven hundred Soldiers were cast on Shore in Scotland, who, by the Duke of Parma’s Mediation with the King of Scots, and with Queen Elizabeth’s Permission, were sent over, a Year after, into the Low-Countries.

[124]About four Days after the English Fleet left the Spaniards, they came to an Island in the North Part of Scotland, where they staid not, nor had any Relief: And at this Place the Duke of Medina calling all the Ships together, charged them to make the best of their way for the Coasts of Spain or Portugal, because they were in the utmost Distress for want of Victuals and other Provisions.

[125]For an Addition to their Misfortunes, about the 23d of August, when there were seventy eight Ships of them together sailing in the Ocean, a violent Storm arose at South-South-West, which continued from Four o’ Clock in the Afternoon ’till Ten the next Morning, and separated them so, that not above twenty seven of them were to be seen together: And again, on the 2d of September, they had another violent Storm, with a Mist, which so dispersed them, that of the foresaid twenty seven, only three came together into Dingle-Bay; [126]and during their Passage round the North of Scotland, they had so terrible a Sickness, that their Mariners and Soldiers died daily in great Multitudes.

As for the Particulars of the Ships sunk, and Men drowned, killed, and taken upon the Coast of Ireland, during the Month of September, they were as follows[127]:

In Tirconnel, in Loughfoyle 1 Ship 1100 and others that escaped.
  {in Slego-Haven 3 great Ships 1500
  {in Tirawley 1 Ship 400
  {in Clare-Island 1 300
In Connaught, {in Finglasse 1 400
  {in O’sla’rtie 1 200
  {in Irrise 2 Ships, the Men escaped into other Vessels.
  {in Gallway-Bay 1 Ship 70
  {in the Shannon 2 Ships 600
  {in the same 1 Ship burnt, the Men embarked in another Ship.
In Munster, {in Traylie, Sept. 7. 1 Ship 24
  {in Dingle 1 500
  {in Desmond, Sept. 10. 1 300
    In all 17 Ships. Men 5394

[128]Besides which, Our Lady of the Rosary, the Admiral Ship of the Guypuscoan Squadron, of near a thousand Tuns, and thirty Guns, that had fifty Brass Field-Pieces on board, was lost upon the Rocks in Bleskey-Sound; so that of five hundred Men, only one escap’d; and in this perished the Prince of Ascula, a natural Son of King Philip, Mighel de Oquendo the Captain, and several other considerable and eminent Persons.

According to other Accounts[129], nine Spanish Ships were driven ashore between the Rivers of Lough-Foile and Lough-Swilley, many whereof were broken to Pieces, and the Spaniards forced to shelter among the wild Irish.

[130]As for such of the Spaniards as had the ill Fortune to be drove upon the Irish Shore, they met with the most barbarous Treatment; for some of them were butcher’d by the wild Irish, and the rest put to the Sword by the Lord Deputy Sir William Fitz-Williams, who fearing they might join with the Irish Malecontents, and observing that Bingham, Governor of Connaught treated them with more Gentleness than he had several times ordered him to do; upon their Surrender, he dispatched Fowle, Deputy Marshal, to execute his Orders; who first dislodg’d them from the Places where they lay conceal’d, and then executed about two hundred of them: But this Rigour the Queen condemn’d, and complain’d of as too extreme: However, the rest being terrified by this way of proceeding, tho’ they were sick and half famish’d, yet chose to trust themselves to their shatter’d Barks, and the Mercy of the Seas; and so became many of them a Sacrifice to the Waves. The Duke of Medina, with twenty or twenty five Ships, keeping in the Ocean, return’d to Spain.

[131]About forty of the Spanish Ships fell in with the Irish Coast, and intended to touch at Cape Clear, in hopes of meeting there with some Refreshment; but the Wind proving contrary, and the Weather tempestuous, many of them perish’d on that Coast; [132]of those that got off, some were driven by a strong West Wind into the English Channel, where part of them were attack’d again and taken by the English, others by the Rochellers, and some arriv’d at Newhaven (or Havre de Grace) in Normandy.

Such were the Spaniards Losses of Men and Ships, in their return round Ireland.

The Losses they had suffered before, were thus:

    Loss of Ships. Men.
July 21. The Spanish Vice-Admiral Ship disabled at the first Engagement near Eddystone, 1 40
  D. Pedro de Valdez’s Gall. taken 1 422
  Oquendo’s Ship, St. Anne, burnt 1 289
July 23. A great Venetian Ship, and other smaller ones,} taken 1  
  The chief Galleass, taken 1 686
  A great Galleon, sunk 1  
  A Galleon of Biscay sunk 1  
  Two Saicks sunk 2  
  The Galleon, St. Matth. taken 1 397
  The Galleon St. Philip taken 1 532
  both by the Flushingers.    
  A Castilian Ship wreck’d 1  
30. Two Venetian Ships sunk 2 843
Aug. The St. Matthew sunk 1 450
  A Biscayner sunk 1 350
  both on the Coast of Scotland.    
  Two lost upon the Coast of Norway, 2  
    Total of Ships 18 Men 8000 at least.

So that by adding their several Losses together, it plainly appears, they lost THIRTY FIVE Ships, and above THIRTEEN THOUSAND Men; besides many others of which no Estimate was or could be made[133]; and above two thousand Prisoners were taken in the Fight in Ireland, and the Low-Countries: Those taken in Ireland were brought to England[134], and confined in Bridewell ’till they were ransomed. The most eminent of the Prisoners were, Don Pedro de Valdez, Don Vasquez de Silvea, Don Alonzo de Sayes, and others taken in the Channel; in Ireland, Don Alonzo de Luzon, Roderigo de Lasso, &c. in Zealand, Don Diego Piementelli, &c. In a Word, there was hardly a noble Family in all Spain, that did not lose a Son, a Brother, or a Kinsman; upon which account the Mourning was so universal in that whole Kingdom, [135]that King Philip was obliged by Proclamation to shorten the usual Time; as the Romans of old, upon their great Defeat of Cannæ, found it necessary to limit the publick Mourning to thirty Days.

[136]The shatter’d Remains of the Spanish Fleet after having weather’d many Storms, and suffered all the Inconveniences of War and Weather, arriv’d at last, about the End of September, at St. Andero, and other Ports of Spain, laden with nothing but Shame and Dishonour. The Duke of Medina was forbid the Court, and ordered to go and live privately; Martinez de Recalde died immediately after his Return; and two of their Ships were accidentally burnt in the Harbour not long after their Arrival. Surely such a Series of ill Success was hardly ever known in any other Age or Nation.

As for the English they lost only Captain Coxe’s Ship abovementioned, and not more than one hundred Men.

Such was the End of the formidable Spanish Armada, that had been three Years fitting out at a vast Expence; and which in less than three Months was shamefully beaten, and put to a most ignominious Flight, [137]without taking at the same time, in several Engagements, and in many Days Fight, any English Ship or Boat, or making one Prisoner; not having so much as fired a Cottage at Land, or taken a Cock-Boat of ours at Sea, as the Lord Bacon observes[138], it wandered through the Wilderness of the Northern Seas; and, according to the Curse in Scripture, Came out against us one way, and fled before us seven ways. Well might the Spaniards marvel at this, and be heartily vexed, as one of their Friends observes they did; [139]so as some of them to say in their Anguish of Heart, “That in all these Fights, Christ shewed himself a Lutheran! Surely it is most manifest, as he goes on, That in all this Voiage, from the Armada’s coming out of Lisbon, even to the very last, God shewed no Favour to the Spaniards any one Day, as he did continually to the English.”

For this signal Deliverance, the Thanks of all true Lovers of their Country, and of the Protestant Religion, are due to that Almighty Being, by whose Assistance their Ancestors obtained the Victory; and it ought at the same time, to make them love and reverence the Memory of that wise and excellent Queen, by whose Prudence and good Management they were enabled to conquer.

[140]Upon the first News of this wonderful Deliverance and Victory, the Kingdom was filled with Joy, and a Sense of Gratitude to God. The first Notice given of it in publick, was on the 20th of August, when Nowel Dean of St. Paul’s preached at the Cross a Thanksgiving Sermon before the Lord-Mayor, Aldermen, and the Companies in their best Liveries. Again September the 8th being another and chief Thanksgiving Day, the Preacher at St. Paul’s Cross moved the People to give Thanks for their Enemies Overthrow; and at the same time were set upon the lower Battlements of the Church, eleven Ensigns or Banners taken from the Spanish Fleet; one Streamer in particular, on which was represented the Virgin Mary with her Son in her Arms, was held in a Man’s Hand over the Pulpit: These Banners were afterwards carried to the Cross in Cheapside[141]; and the next Day, September 9, were hanged on London-Bridge towards Southwark, where the Fair was kept. The 17th of November, being Sunday, was another Rejoicing-Day, as well upon account of the Queen’s Accession to the Throne, as for this Victory. Her Majesty intended to have been at Paul’s Cross, to hear a Sermon preach’d by Dr. Cooper Bishop of Winchester, and Provision had accordingly been made for her Reception; but upon some Occasion or other, her coming was put off ’till the Sunday following: The 19th being Tuesday was a general Thanksgiving-Day throughout the whole Kingdom. The next Sunday, November 24, the Queen, attended by her Privy Council, by the Nobility, and other honourable Persons, as well Spiritual as Temporal, in great number, the French Ambassador, the Judges, the Heralds, and Trumpeters all on Horseback, came in a Chariot supported by four Pillars, and drawn by two white Horses, to St. Paul’s Church; where alighting at the West Door, she fell on her Knees, and audibly praised God for her own and the Nation’s signal Deliverance; and, after a Sermon suitable to the Occasion, preached by Dr. Pierce, Bishop of Sarum, she exhorted the People in a most Royal and Christian manner, to a due Performance of the religious Duty of Thanksgiving; then going to the Bishop of London’s Palace, where she dined, she returned in the same Order as before, by Torch-light, to Somerset-House.

Those brave Men that had ventur’d their Lives in the Defence of their Country, were considered and rewarded by the Queen. [142]She settled a Pension on the Lord High-Admiral for his great Service, and bestow’d a handsome yearly Allowance on the poor and disabled Seamen; and upon all Occasions she distinguish’d the rest of the Officers, Soldiers, and Sailors with particular Marks of her Regard and Esteem; but their Rewards consisted generally more in Words than in Deeds.

A short Explanation and Account of what is contained in each of the ten Tapestry-Plates, and the ten Charts.

The first Plate of the Tapestry and Chart I. represent the Spanish Fleet coming up the Channel, opposite to the Lizard, as it was first discovered. See Account of the Spanish Invasion, p. 12, 13.

Plate II. and Chart II. The Spanish Fleet against Fowey, drawn up in the Form of a Half Moon, and the English Fleet pursuing them. Account, &c. p. 13.

Plate III. and Chart III. At the left Hand Corner is represented the first Engagement between the Spanish and English Fleets: After which the English give Chace to the Spaniards, who draw themselves up into a Roundel. Account, &c. ibid.

Plate IV. and Chart IV. De Valdez’s Galleon springs her Foremast, and is taken by Sir Francis Drake. The Lord-Admiral with the Bear and Mary Rose, pursue the Enemy, who are in the Form of a Half Moon. Account, &c. p. 13, 14.

Plate V. and Chart V. The Admiral of the Guypuscoan Squadron being set on Fire, is taken by the English. The rest of the Spanish Fleet continue their Course in the Form of a Half Moon: And when both Fleets were against the Isle of Portland, they come to an Engagement. Account, &c. p. 14.

Plate VI. and Chart VI. Some English Ships attack the Spanish Fleet to the Westward. The Spaniards draw themselves into a Roundel: And afterwards keeping on their Course, are followed by the English. Account, &c. p. 14, 15.

Plate VII. and Chart VII. Represent the sharpest Engagement that happen’d between the two Fleets, on July 25, against the Isle of Wight. Account, &c. p. 15.

In Plate VIII. and Chart VIII. the Spanish Fleet is seen sailing up the Channel, intending to stop at Dunkirk or Calais, where they were to be join’d by the Duke of Parma: The English follow them close. Account, &c. p. 16.

Plate IX. and Chart IX. The Spaniards come to an Anchor before Calais, from whence they are dislodg’d by the Fireships sent amongst them in the Night: The English prepare to pursue them. Account, &c. p. 16, 17.

Plate X. and Chart X. The Spaniards make the best of their way for the Northern Seas; and are, in the mean time, very much battered by the English, who closely pursue them. The chief Galleass is stranded near Calais. Account, &c. p. 17, 18, 19.

The Reader is desired to observe, that the Border in Plate II, IV, VI, VIII, X, is an exact Representation of the Border to the Tapestry-Hangings, which is ornamented with the Portraits of the principal Commanders; and is the same in all the Pieces of the Tapestry; only the Heads are differently placed. But for more Variety, and in order to bring in the Heads of Sir Robert Carey, the Earl of Northumberland, Sir Roger Townshend, and Sir Thomas Gerard, another Border has been contrived, being that which is round Plate I, III, V, VII, IX.

We are inform’d by Joachim de Sandrart[143], that the Designs of the Tapestry were made by Henry Cornelius Vroom, a famous Painter of Harlem, eminent for his great Skill in drawing all Sorts of Shipping; and that it was Wove by Francis Spiring.

Explanation of the Medals and other Ornaments round the Charts.

Gen. Chart. On the left Side Britannia is represented darting Thunder and Lightning, upon Envy, Superstition, and the Kingdom of Spain, delineated by those of Castile and Leon, which lye groveling below: On the other Side, True Religion, represented by a Woman sitting, and holding a Bible in one Hand, thunders down upon Hypocrisy, Ignorance, and Popery: The Medal at the Top has, on one Side, the Spanish Fleet in a Storm, and this Inscription, FLAVIT · יְהֹוָה‎‬ · ET · DISSIPATI · SVNT· 1588. The Lord blew, and they were dispers’d. On the Reverse is represented a Church founded upon a Rock, (meaning the Protestant Religion,) which the Waves beat against, and the Heavens seem to frown upon; the Inscription is ALLIDOR · NON · LÆDOR, I am beat (by the Waves) but not hurt. That at the Bottom, which is of Silver, and in the Collection of Dr. Mead, has on one Side, the Pope, Cardinals, and Bishops; the Emperor, King Philip, and other Princes in their Robes of State, sitting in Consultation, bound about their Eyes with Fillets, the Ends of which are sticking up, and the Floor of the Room they are assembled in all full of Pricks: The Inscription above them, O COECAS · HOMINVM · MENTES · O · PECTORA · COECA. O the blind Understandings of Men! O their blind Hearts! About the Circle, DVRVM · EST · CONTRA · STIMVLOS · CALCITRARE, It is hard to kick against the Pricks: On the Reverse, A Fleet of Ships dash’d against Rocks, and sinking: Above, VENI · VIDE· VIVE, 1588. Come, see, live, 1588: TV · DEVS · MAGNVS · ET · MAGNA · FACIS · TV · SOLVS · DEVS, Thou, o God, art great, and dost great things, thou art God alone.

Chart I. and II. Above is a profile Face of Queen Elizabeth (taken from a Minute of Is. Oliver, in the Collection of Dr. Mead,) before which sits History with an Olive-Branch, recording her great Actions; and behind her, Fame sounding her Praises. On each Side of the Queen are moreover several warlike Instruments taken out of the Spanish Fleet, and now preserved in the Tower. From Queen Elizabeth’s Picture hangs the Anchor of Hope, the Arms of the Admiralty, surrounded by the Winds; and below stands Neptune, the God of the Sea, in his Chariot, to denote the Queen’s Dominion of the Narrow Seas. At the Corner of the first Chart Britannia sitting upon a Rock in the Sea, and looking scornfully upon the Spanish Fleet, has this very pertinent Motto by her,

Maturate fugam, &c.
Hence to your Lord my Royal Mandate bear,
The Realms of Ocean, and the Fields of Air,
Are mine, not his.
Virg. Æn. l. I.

Chart III. and IV. At the Top is a Picture of the Lord High-Admiral, (taken from an original Painting of Frederico Zucchero, in Possession of his Grace the Duke of Kent) having on one Side Prudence, Janus like, with a double Face; and on the other, Courage: Among which are intermix’d several Spanish Weapons, now in the Tower. The Silver Coin, which was struck on this glorious Occasion by the Zealanders, has on one side two Ships engag’d, and under CLASSIS · HISP. Round the Circle, VENIT · IVIT · FVIT, 1588. The Spanish Fleet came, went, was, 1588. On the Reverse, the Arms of Zealand, with this Inscription, SOLI · DEO · GLORIA, Glory to God alone: Under the Lord-Admiral, Victory fitting, holds in her right Hand a Laurel Crown, and his Lordship’s Arms: In her left, a Chain, to which are fastened below the Duke of Medina, and the other chief Spanish Commanders.

Chart V. and VI. At the Top is a Portrait of Sir Francis Drake, (taken out of Mr. Knapton’s Collection of illustrious Men,) and adorned on each Side with proper Naval Ornaments. The Coin at the Top has on one Side the Arms of Zealand crown’d, with this Inscription, NON · NOBIS · DOMINE · NON · NOBIS, 1588. Not to us, o Lord, not to us: Reverse, The Spanish Fleet flying, thus circumscribed, SED · NOMINI · TVO · DA · GLORIAM, But to thy Name give the Praise: That at the Bottom represents on one Side Queen Elizabeth, sitting in a triumphal Chariot, holding in her right Hand a Palm Branch, the Emblem of Victory; and in her left a Book open, in which is the Beginning of the Lord’s Prayer in Dutch, and round the Circle, TANDEM · BONA · CAVSA · TRIVMPHAT, 1588. At last the good Cause triumphs: Upon the Reverse, a Tree in which is a Nest full of small Birds, that jointly defend themselves against a Bird of Prey, by whom they are attack’d: At the Bottom BELLVM · NECESS. A War of Necessity: Round the Circle, SI · NON · VIRIBVS · AT · CAVSA · POTIORES, Superior, if not in Strength, yet in the Goodness of our Cause. At the Bottom of these two Charts is represented Sir Francis Drake, distributing amongst his Officers and Sailors, the Money, &c. that was found in a great Galleon brought to Dartmouth, See Account, &c. p. 13, 14. Others are driving the Prisoners before them.

Chart VII. and VIII. At the upper Part are the Portraits of Sir M. Forbisher, and Sir J. Hawkins (taken from Holland’s Herologia Anglicana) with a naval Crown between them, and other suitable Decorations. Below them, upon a Columna Rostrata, (i.e. a Pillar adorned with the Beaks of Ships,) stands Victory, holding a Shield, upon which are the Names of those brave Persons that were knighted by the Lord-Admiral, as is represented at the Bottom. See Account, &c. p. 16. Others are bringing Weapons out of the Spanish Ships.

Chart IX. and X. At the Top is a curious Portrait of Queen Elizabeth, (taken from a Gold Alto Relievo, in the Collection of Dr. Mead,) thundering down upon Philip II. King of Spain, Pope Sixtus V. (taken from a Copper Medal in the Collection of Tho. Sadler Esq;) and Alexander Duke of Parma, whom she holds in Chains. At the two bottom Corners are two Boys weeping, and pointing at the Spanish Fleet, which is represented as shipwreck’d, and in the utmost Distress. The Coin at the left Hand Corner of the Top, was struck by the Zealanders, and exhibits the Spanish Fleet in a violent Storm, the Sun above, breaking out of a thick Cloud; the Inscription is, POST · NVBILA · PHOEBVS, After cloudy Weather Sun-shine; or, After a Storm a Calm. On the Coin at the Right Hand, are four Persons upon their Knees, looking up to Heaven, with this Inscription, HOMO · PROPONIT · DEVS · DISPONIT, Man proposeth, God disposeth: The Reverse, which is not copied here, had this Inscription, HISPANI · FVGIVNT · ET · PEREVNT · NEMINE · SEQVENTE.

The above Medals, excepting those taken from the Collections mentioned, are from Histoire Metallique des Pays Bas, par G. van Loon.

This Account was drawn up by the Rev. Mr. Philip Morant, M.A. Rector of St. Mary’s, Colchester.


Page 3. Col. 1. Line ult. of Notes, for Sailor read Sailors.
Ibid. for Books read Book.
Page 8. Col. 1. Line 54. for del Barrio 130 read 530.
Ibid. Col. 2. Line 38. for Rama read Lama.




The Spanish Armada made an effort, July 25, 1588, to land and take possession of the Isle of Wight, when a spirited engagement took place, which caused the Spanish admiral to pursue his course to Calais Roads.

The next day the Lord High Admiral of the English fleet called on board of his own ship, the “Arke-Royal,” and conferred the honor of knighthood on the Lord Thomas Howard, the Lord Sheffield Roger Townshend, Martin Frobisher, and John Hawkins, as a reward for their undaunted spirit and bravery in this great fight at sea, having power from the Queen so to do.

As brief biographical sketches of these important commanders may be interesting, the following have been taken from various historical, biographical, and genealogical works:—


Charles, second Lord Howard of Effingham, and Lord High Admiral of England, was son of the first lord and grandson of Thomas, second Duke of Norfolk.

He was born 1536, and after much service was appointed, in 1585, Lord High Admiral of England, and was chief in command against the Spanish Armada, in 1588.

As he was a staunch Roman Catholic, history will forever honor the tremendous efforts made by him to frustrate the landing of this powerful combination of land and sea forces, fitted out as it were under the auspices of the Pope of Rome, and his loyalty to his Queen and country.

In 1596, he commanded the fleet while the Earl of Essex commanded the land forces in the expedition against Cadiz. For this meritorious service he was created Earl of Nottingham. In 1599, in anticipation of another invasion by the King of Spain, he was given the sole command of the army and navy, with the title of Lieutenant-General of all England. He commanded the troop that subdued the Essex rebellion, and under James I. was employed in several distinguished capacities, and died December 14, 1624, aged eighty-eight, having some years before resigned the office of Lord High Admiral, in the behalf of the favorite Villiers, Earl of Buckingham, receiving in exchange a pension of £1,000, and the acquittal of a debt of £1,800 due the Crown.


The Lord Thomas Howard was a son of the fourth Duke of Norfolk. His lordship was a distinguished commander in the memorable engagement between the English fleet and the Spanish Armada, in 1588.

In 1591 he had command of a squadron of ships sent out to attack the Spanish Plate fleet, homeward bound from America, and distinguished himself, with Sir Thomas Vasseur, in capturing a part of this fleet.

He was, in 1596, in the fleet commanded by Charles Howard, Lord High Admiral of England. This Thomas Howard led the third squadron, and it was this fleet which took the town of Cadiz. The same year, on his return, he was summoned to Parliament by the title of Lord Howard of Walden.

The next year, to divert the Spaniard from a descent on Ireland, the Queen sent out a fleet of one hundred and twenty, divided into three squadrons, commanded by the Earl of Essex, Lord Thomas Howard, and Sir Walter Raleigh. On his return to England, he was installed one of the Knights of the Garter, May 24, 1597.

In 1601, he was one of the commanders of the forces to whom the Earl of Essex surrendered, and on the 19th February following he was one of the peers that sat on his trial, being then constable of the Tower. Meeting King James I. at Theobalds, in May, 1603, he was sworn of the Privy Council, and July 21st following was advanced to the Earldom of Suffolk. He was also made a Commissioner for making Knights of the Bath, also for executing the office of Earl Marshal of England. In 1605, being Lord Chamberlain together with the Lord Mounteagle, the Gunpowder Plot was discovered. He was elected Chancellor of the University of Cambridge in 1613, and July 11, 1614, was constituted Lord High Treasurer of England. The earl died in London, May 28, 1626.


Sir Roger Townshend of Raynham, Knight, was descended, according to Collins and other learned antiquaries, through a long line of ancestry from Lodovic or Lewis, a Norman nobleman, who married Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Sir Thomas de Hauteville or Havile, Lord of Raynham, through which match the Raynham estate came into the family and is now the chief seat of the Marquis Townshend.

This Sir Roger was born about 1550, and was heir to his great grandfather, Sir Roger Townshend, Kt., whose will was proved at Norwich, Co. Norfolk, May 10, 1552. He was a gentleman of high rank and great worth in his native county Norfolk, and while Spain was preparing the Invincible Armada of 1588 to invade England, he manifested the greatest spirit and energy in fitting out and manning ships at his own expense to repel the invaders, going in person in the cause of his country, and on account of his undaunted spirit and bravery in the several engagements previous to the 26th of July, he was knighted that day on board the Ark Royal, by the Admiral Lord Howard of Effingham, who had power from Queen Elizabeth so to do. This Sir Roger was in the thickest of the fight and suffered the loss of many of his men, and we have evidence from a letter dated at Margate, Kent, August 10, 1588, in which Lord Howard writes Burghley “that of all the men brought by Sir Roger Townshend he has but one left alive.”

He lived but two years afterwards, dying in the flower of his age at a seat he had purchased of Thomas Sutton, Esq., at Newington, Co. Middlesex, and was buried June 30, 1590, in the church of St. Giles, Cripplegate, London.


Sir John Hawkins, a seaman of distinguished ability who flourished during the reign of Elizabeth, was born at Plymouth about 1520, and his early life was spent in trading voyages to the south of Europe and African coast. With the assistance of several merchants he fitted out a small fleet in 1562, and obtained by force and purchase a cargo of negroes, which he carried to the Spanish West India Colonies and there sold them; this we believe was the first adventure in the African slave trade made by Englishmen.

He made many voyages of this kind, and was at last attacked by the Spanish authorities in the Port of S. Juan de Ulloa, and saved only two of his ships and returned to England in January, 1568, after suffering much hardship. This was his last commercial enterprise.

Hawkins was appointed in 1573 treasurer of the navy, and in 1588 we find him serving as Rear Admiral against the Spanish Armada, and for his great spirit and bravery he was knighted by the Admiral Charles Lord Howard of Effingham. He went to intercept the Plate fleet and harrass the trade of Spain with Frobishers and others in 1590, but failed in the first object and succeeded in the second. In 1595, he was sent with Drake to command an expedition against the Spaniards in the West Indies; but they failed to agree and soon after separated. Sir John Hawkins died November 21, 1595, and his colleague, Drake, soon after. Hawkins founded a hospital at Chatham for poor and sick seamen. He also sat in Parliament for Plymouth.


Sir Martin Frobisher was born at Doncaster, Yorkshire, of humble parentage, and brought up to the sea, and in early life displayed the talents of a great navigator, and was the first Englishman who attempted to find a northwest passage to China. Under the patronage of Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick, he fitted out two barks of twenty-five tons, and a pinnace of ten tons, and sailed from Deptford, January 8, 1576, and on July 11th discovered Freeseland and the strait which still bears his name, and after making numerous discoveries he returned to England, arriving at Harwich 2d October of the same year. On this voyage he took possession of the country in Queen Elizabeth’s name and brought back with him specimens of gold ore. This circumstance raised prodigious expectations, and the Queen lent him a ship of two hundred tons for his next expedition, on which he sailed accompanied with a party of one hundred and forty persons (also two barks of thirty tons each) from Gravesend, May 26, 1577. He made numerous discoveries, but his instructions were to search for ore, and being in the Countess of Warwick Island he took a lading of it and arrived in England the end of September, 1577, and was most graciously received by the Queen, who fitted out another fleet of twelve vessels which sailed from Harwich May 31, 1578, and sighted Freeseland June 20th, and took possession of the country in the Queen’s name, calling it West England, and after collecting much ore sailed for and arrived in England after a stormy and dangerous passage in the beginning of October. In 1588 he commanded the Triumph in the engagement against the Spanish Armada and received the honor of knighthood for his valor at sea by the Lord High Admiral, 26 July of the same year. In 1590, he commanded a squadron to the Spanish Coast, and in 1594 he was sent with four men-of-war to the assistance of Henry IV. of France, against a body of leaguers and Spaniards then in possession of part of Brittany, who had fortified themselves very strongly at Croyzon near Brest. Here, in an assault upon that fort, November 7th, he was wounded by a ball in the hip, of which he died soon after he had brought the fleet safely back to Plymouth, and was buried in that town.


Sir Walter Raleigh, a distinguished statesman, scholar, and warrior, in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I., was born in 1552, at Budleigh in Devonshire, and educated at Oriel College, Oxford. At the age of seventeen he made one of a troop of an hundred gentlemen volunteers whom Queen Elizabeth permitted to go to France, under the command of Henry Champernon, for the service of the Protestant princes. He next served in the Netherlands; and, on his return from the Continent, his half-brother, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, having obtained a grant of lands in North America, he engaged with a considerable number of gentlemen to go out to Newfoundland: but the expedition proving unsuccessful, Sir Walter returned to England, after being exposed to several dangers, and proceeded thence to Ireland, where he made his bravery so conspicuous in quelling the insurgents, that he was received at court with considerable favor, and obtained permission and supplies to prosecute his discoveries in America, which ended in his settling a colony in that country, called, in honor of his maiden sovereign, Virginia; and he is said to have first introduced tobacco and potatoes into Europe. In the mean time the Queen conferred on him the distinction of knighthood, and rewarded him by several lucrative grants, including a large share of the forfeited Irish estates. When his country’s safety was threatened by the famous Spanish Armada, he raised and disciplined the militia of Cornwall; and afterwards, by joining the fleet with a squadron of ships belonging to gentlemen volunteers, assisted in obtaining the signal victory which it pleased Providence to give to the English over the Spaniards on that occasion. He was now made gentleman of the privy chamber; but shortly after fell into disgrace, and was confined for some months, partly on account of a tract which he had published, entitled “the School for Atheists,” which was unfairly construed by his enemies into a vindication of atheistical principles; and partly for a clandestine attachment to one of the Queen’s maids of honor, the daughter of Sir Nicholas Throckmorton; which lady, however, he afterwards honorably married. During his seclusion he planned the discovery of the extensive country of Guiana, in South America, in which he took an active part himself, as soon as he was set at liberty: but the season being unfavorable, he returned to England, and was soon after appointed to a command in the important expedition to Cadiz, of which the success was in a great measure owing to Sir Walter’s valor and prudence. This, joined to several other important services, restored him completely to the favor of Elizabeth, towards the end of her reign. Her successor, James, prejudiced against him by Robert Cecil, disapproving of his martial spirit, and jealous of his abilities, availed himself of a court conspiracy against this great man, charging him with participating in an attempt to place upon the throne Arabella Stuart, and of carrying on a secret correspondence with the King of Spain. By the base subservience of the jury, he was brought in guilty of high treason, even to the surprise of the Attorney-General Coke himself, who declared that he had only charged him with misprision of treason. Raleigh was reprieved, and committed to the Tower, where his wife, at her earnest solicitation, was allowed to reside with him, and where his youngest son was born. Twelve years was Sir Walter detained a prisoner in the Tower; during which time, besides various minor compositions, he wrote his “History of the World;” a work distinguished for the richness of its information, the judiciousness of its reflections, and the vigor of its style. At length his release was obtained, in 1616, by the advance of a large sum of money to the new favorite, Villiers; and, to retrieve his broken fortunes, he planned another expedition to America. He obtained a patent under the great seal for making a settlement in Guiana; but, in order to retain a power over him, the king did not grant him a pardon for the sentence passed upon him for his alleged treason. Having reached the Orinoco, he dispatched a portion of his force to attack the new Spanish settlement of St. Thomas, which was captured; but he had to lament the death of his eldest son, who fell on that occasion. The expected plunder proved of little value: and Sir Walter, having in vain tried to induce his captains to attack other Spanish settlements, arrived at Plymouth in July, 1618. Being brought before the court of King’s Bench, his plea of an implied pardon by his subsequent command, was overruled; and the doom of death being pronounced against him, it was carried into execution the following day, October 28, 1819, in Old Palace Yard. His behavior at the scaffold was calm, and, after addressing the people at some length in his own justification, he received the stroke of death with perfect composure; remarking to the sheriff, with a smile, as he felt the edge of the axe, “This is a sharp medicine, but it is a physician that will cure all diseases.”


Very little is known of the parentage of John Pine, the original engraver and publisher of this work.

He flourished between the years 1720-1750, and ranked second to none in his profession. He was a most intimate friend of Hogarth, who showed his admiration for him by painting him in the manner of Rembrandt.

The years of his birth and death are uncertain. His chief works are the Ceremonies used at the Revival of the Order of the Bath; a splendid edition of Horace, illustrated with copies of antiques, bas-reliefs, gems, and coins: also a print of the House of Commons.

His engravings of the tapestry hangings of the House of Lords are sufficient evidence of his ability as an engraver. These splendid representations of the engagements between the English fleet and the Spanish Armada were destroyed by fire when the Houses of Parliament were burned, Oct. 16, 1834.

General Chart

Charts I and II

Plate I

Plate II

Charts III and IV

Plate III

Plate IV

Charts V and VI

Plate V

Plate VI

Charts VII and VIII

Plate VII

Plate VIII

Charts IX and X

Plate IX

Plate X


1.  See Grotii Hist. lib. i. p. 117. Fol.

2.  Vol. I. p. 591, 592.

3.  Strada, Dec. II. l. 9.

4.  Strada, Dec. ii. l. 9.

5.  Vol. II. p. 135.

6.  Mary Queen of Scots, the Day before she suffer’d Death, did under her own Hand in the French Tongue, declare, “That her Son James should not inherit England, if he remained a Protestant, but that the Right of the Kingdom should be translated to Philip King of Spain.” Rug. Tritonii Vita Vin. Laurei Cardin.

7.  This Account is according to the Lists below. But it will be proper to observe, that Authors do very much differ in their Accounts of this Armada, and the several things belonging to it. According to Thuanus, it consisted of 150 Ships of all Sorts; 140 says Grotius; 130 Camden and Strype, 135 Strada; 128 Speed; 150 Hakluyt; 160 others, &c.—Tuns 57868, Spanish Book, Hakluyt, Purchas.—Cannons 2650, Hakluyt, Thuanus (1600 of Brass, and 1050 of Iron.) 2630, Camden.—Sailor 8450 Spanish Books, 8000 Thuanus, 8350 Camden, 7449 Strada.—Soldiers, 20000 Thuanus and Stow, 19295 Spanish Book, 19290 Camden, 18857 Strada.

8.  Thuanus, lib. 89.

9.  Discourse of the Armada by D. Archdeacon, being a Translation of the Spanish Account, Lond. 1588. Lediard’s Naval History, p. 234, &c.

10.  According to Strada there were 220 Noblemen and Gentlemen, 354 Voluntiers: Their Servants 624; Priests, Surgeons, and other Officers, and Servants 669. Decas ii. lib. 9.

11.  Thuanus, lib. 89.

12.  Being the chosen Vessels of all K. Philip’s Dominions, excessive monstrous, beyond all the Navies that ever had been seen in Christendom. Letter to B. Mendoza, p. 16.

13.  Discourse of the Armada by D. Archdeacon, Thuanus, Lediard, Hakluyt, Purchas, &c.

14.  1200,000, Thuan. 20,200 Harris, 220,000 Speed, 119,000 Spanish Book.

15.  Laquei certe, & plura necis instrumenta, aut servitutis inter spolia visitata sunt. Grotii Hist. p. 118. See Letter to B. Mendoza, in the Postscript, p. 37.

16.  Discourse of the Armada, &c. Thuanus, Lediard, &c.

17.  A Septier is twelve Bushels.

18.  Strype’s Annals, tom. iii. p. 451.

19.  Hakluyt, vol. I. p. 593.

20.  And, as Thuanus computes it, before it sailed from Lisbon, it had stood K. Philip in Centies vicies centena millia aureorum, lib. 89. above two Millions.

21.  Strada, Dec. II. l. 9.

22.  Hakluyt, Speed’s Chron.

23.  Decad. l. II. p. 9.

24.  Thuan. lib. 89. Hakluyt and Purchas.

25.  Stow, p. 746.

26.  Thuan. l. 89.

27.  Welwood’s Memoirs, p. 8, 9.

28.  Camden, Thuanus, l. 89.

29.  Eo consilio, ut Regina, ob colloquium pacis de defensione secura, facilius opprimeretur: quam tamen illa minime neglexit. Thuan. l. 89.

30.  Grotius, p. 119. Hakluyt vol. i. p. 595.

31.  Cotton MSS.

32.  Camden.

33.  Strype’s Annals, tom. iii. p. 516.

34.  Stow Chron. p. 744.

35.  Stow’s Survey, Edit. 1720. B. i. p. 283.

36.  Letter to B. Mendoza, p. 23, 24, &c.

37.  Ibid. p. 6, 7, 8.

38.  Camden.

39.  Strada, Dec. ii. lib. 9.

40.  Camden. Rapin, vol. ii. p. 136.

41.  Letter to B. Mendoza, p. 30, 35.

42.  See his Letter in Rymer’s Fœdera, tom. xvi. p. 18.

43.  Camden.

44.  Taken from the Spanish Book printed in 1588. compar’d with Lediard.

45.  From a MS. in the Royal Library, 14 B XIII.

46.  Strada, Dec. ii. lib. 9.

47.   Hakluyt, Camden.

48.  MSS. in the Cottonian Library, Jul. F X. 17. fol. III.

49.  Camden Ann. and Burchett.

50.  Cotton MSS.

51.  Lediard’s Naval Hist. p. 254.

52.   Camden.

53.  Cotton MSS.

54.  Camden, Hakluyt, Purchas, Cotton MSS, &c.

55.  Cotton MSS.

56.  It is called the Disdain in Cotton MSS.

57.  Eman. Fremosa’s Examination, printed in 1588. In the following Engagements they lost twenty five Men more. Ibid.

58.  Camden.

59.  Cotton MSS.

60.  Camden.

61.  A Spanish Officer had quarrel’d with him, and called him Traytor, imagining he had not done his Duty in the last Engagement. Strada, Dec, ii. lib. 9.

62.  Cotton MSS.

63.  Camden.

64.  Cotton MSS.

65.  Camden.

66.  Cotton MSS.

67.  Camden.

68.  Purchas, &c.

69.  Some Authors say, there was a Cessation on both Sides, Camden, &c.

70.  Purchas, Speed, &c.

71.  Cotton MSS.

72.  Camden, Cotton MSS. Strada.

73.  Cotton MSS.

74.  Camden.

75.  Purchas, Harris.

76.  Camden, Cotton MSS.

77.  Cotton MSS.

78.  Camden.

79.  Camden, Thuanus, Letter to B. Mendoza, p. 28.

80.  Cotton MSS.

81.  Ibid.

82.  Harris.

83.  Camden.

84.  Eman. Fremosa’s Examination.

85.  Camden, Thuanus.

86.  See Strada de Bello Belgico, Dec. ii. lib. 6.

87.  Each of their Ships lost two Anchors here. Em. Fremosa’s Examinat.

88.  Camden, Burchett.

89.  Eman. Fremosa’s Examinat.

90.  Thuanus, Lediard.

91.  Cotton MSS.

92.  Letter to B. Mendoza, p. 28.

93.  Hakluyt, Purchas, Harris.

94.  Cotton MSS.

95.  Camden, Burchett.

96.  Eman. Francisco’s Examinat.

97.  Thuanus, Purchas, Harris.

98.  Purchas and Harris call him Bauderdues.

99.  Em. Fremosa’s and Em. Francisco’s Examinat.

100.  Burchett.

101.  This worthy Commander, for his gallant Behaviour in this Action, and afterwards at the Overthrow and Burning of the Spanish Navy in the Bay of Cadiz 1588, and Taking the Town 1596, when he was Vice-Admiral, was Knighted, and the following Motto added to his Arms, se inserit astris.

102.  Letter to B. Mendoza, p. 18.

103.  Em. Fremosa’s Examinat.

104.  J. Antonio’s Examinat.

105.  Em. Francisco’s and J de le Concedo’s Examinat.

106.  Cotton MSS. Thuanus.

107.  Camden, Burchett, Strada.

108.  Harris, Lediard.

109.  Speed, p. 862.

110.  Cabala, p. 373.

111.  Camden.

112.  Letter to B. Mendoza, p. 22.

113.  Ibid.

114.  One Night, as the Queen was in the Camp, guarded by her Army, the Lord Treasurer Burleigh came thither, and delivered to the Earl of Leicester the Examination of Don Pedro, who was taken and brought in by Sir Francis Drake; the Sum of which was this: Don Pedro being asked what was the Intent of their coming, stoutly answer’d the Lords, What, but to subdue your Nation, and root it out. Good, said the Lords, and what meant you then to do with the Catholicks? He answered, We meant to send them (good Men) directly unto Heaven, as all you that are Hereticks to Hell. Yea but, said the Lords, What meant you to do with your Whips of Cord and Wyer? (whereof they had great Store in their Ships,) What, said he, we meant to whip you Hereticks to Death, that have assisted my Master’s Rebels, and done such Dishonours to our Catholick King and People. Yea, but what would you have done said they, with their young Children. They, said he, which were above seven Years old should have gone the Way their Fathers went; the rest should have lived, branded in the Forehead with the Letter L, for Lutheran, to perpetual Bondage, Cabala, p. 372. Letter to Mendoza, p. 37.——It was also published, that the Lords of Spain which were in the Navy, had made a special Division amongst themselves, of all the Noblemens Houses in England by their Names, and had in a sort quartered England among themselves, and had determined of sundry manners of cruel Death, both of the Nobility and the rest of the People. The Ladies, Women, and Maidens were also destined to all Villany; the rich Merchants Houses in London were put into a Register, by their very Names, and limited to the Companies of the Squadrons of the Navy for their Spoil. Letter to Mendoza, p. 37.

115.  Camden, Thuanus.

116.  Cotton MSS.

117.  Camden.

118.  J. Antonio’s Examinat.

119.  Harris, &c.

120.  Appendix to Letter to Mendoza, p. 1.

121.  J. A. de Monoma’s Examinat.

122.  Ibid.

123.  Camden.

124.  Thuanus.

125.  Eman. Fremosa’s Examinat. and Re-Examinat.

126.  Certain Advertisements out of Ireland, Printed in 1588.

127.  Ibid.

128.  Ibid.

129.  Appendix to Letter to Mendoza, p. 2.

130.  Camden.

131.  Speed, Harris.

132.  Grotius, Strada.

133.  This Account is taken from the relation given above, and from certain Advertisements out of Ireland, and Depositions of Prisoners, printed in 1588, with which Strada and the Spanish Writers agree. But our Historians vary extremely in this, as well as other Particulars: Hakluyt, vol. i. p. 604. and others, say the Spaniards lost eighty one Ships out of their hundred and thirty two; and that there return’d to Spain only one of the Galleasses of Naples, one of the four Galleons of Portugal, and thirty three of the Galleons and Hulks from divers Provinces, &c. Stow affirms there return’d to Spain only threescore Sail; and others say only fifty three. See Purchas, Thuanus l. lxxxix. Harris, Speed, &c.

134.  Strype’s Annals vol. iii. p. 533. Don Pedro de Valdez, who was Sir Francis Drake’s Prisoner, remained three or four Years in England, and paid three thousand five hundred Pounds for his Ransom, Ibid. p. 532.

135.  Strada, Grotius.

136.  Camden.

137.  See Letter to Mendoza, p. 17.

138.  Of a War with Spain. See his Works, Fol. vol. iii. p. 523, &c.

139.  Letter to Mendoza, p. 17.

140.  Strype’s Ann. vol. iii. p. 525. Stow’s Ann.

141.  Letter to B. Mendoza, p. 37.

142.  Camden.

143.  Academia Artis Pictoriæ Norwergæ, p. 274.


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